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June 21 2019

drdej197
Useless you have become 
drdej197
drdej197

May 30 2019

drdej197
drdej197

NEWS FD-N-30 05 2019

(DOC, 95.5 KB)

May 28 2019

drdej197

May 10 2019

drdej197

May 06 2019

drdej197

April 29 2019

drdej197
Fake  News Antidote MONDAY 
George W. Bush also made statements stating that 'Moslems" have replaced Communism.
“We must not hide ourselves when we talk about secularism, we do not really talk about secularism, we talk about the communitarianism that has settled in certain districts of the Republic,” Macron said, referring to Muslim communities.  http://www.defenddemocracy.press/political-islam-wants-to-secede-from-france-macron/?fbclid=IwAR2ezBRdkHgIVzcygSXN6WeU_GZL3Kt3iHq_9v1vQv6b1ngrElFPBWRPuk8


Saudi Savagery: Kingdom Beheads 16-Year-Old For Sending Whatsapp Message
Ron Paul Institute for Peace and ProsperityLike Page
27 April at 10:30 · 
The Saudi government tortured, electrocuted, and beheaded a kid who shared a message about an anti-government on WhatsApp when he was 16 years old. Is this what Trump means when he talks about our "shared values" with the Saudis?


Shocking Study Shows Fracking Is Depleting US Drinking Water Sources at a Catastrophic Rate


Mint Press News
10 hrs ·  29-04-2019 
President Trump has proven himself either incapable of challenging the military industrial complex, or totally complicit in the aim of that complex to perpetuate endless military conflict.  https://www.mintpressnews.com/u-s-special-operations-the-new-face-of-americas-war-machine/256431/?fbclid=IwAR0axqhi0B4WIRRwNz-ppD9Tha_slk31VAIC6d5XCC2nOEY08jc0b0Vr_aM

Mint Press News
17 hrs · 29-04-2019
Julian Assange’s “crime” was revealing deep, embarrassing, sometimes deadly, malfeasance by numerous actors, including the U.S. government, the media, the Democratic Party-Clinton machine, and Israel.   https://www.facebook.com/MintpressNewsMPN/ 


"Being a reproductive hero is one of the best spoils of war." 
Quoted from Rupert Murdoch's NatGeo. Barry Grossman The phenomenon of assuming that we witnessed something which , in fact, we only saw on television, is not dissimilar to the phenomena described by some as The Mandala Effect. It also seems to involve a phenomena which all propaganda relies on; that is, our inability, far more often than not, to recall the specific source of information that has taken up residence in our memory. 

Who is lying to you


Students...“Money & Fear” below discusses the scourge of hidden inflation numbers and what they mean for the wider national and global economies.  
The data-packed 20-minute episode can be accessed on the below sites.
With citations, video & audio links:
Vimeo On Demand:
The episode’s 3.5-minute preview:


Geoffrey M Young
20 April at 19:23 · 
Stephen Lendman writes:

"Russiagate has been and remains a colossal hoax. Cooked up by Obama’s Russophobic CIA director John Brennan, it’s one of the most shameful chapters in US political history.

Since the US intelligence community falsely accused Russia of US election meddling in October 2016 — presenting no evidence because there is none — Mueller’s report was much ado about nothing.

His 19-lawyer team, 40 FBI special agents, intelligence analysts, forensic accountants, and other professional staff spent around $25 million.

They issued 2,800 subpoenas, 500 search warrants, almost 50 orders authorizing use of pen registers, 13 requests to foreign governments for evidence, over 230 orders for communication records, interviewed about 500 individuals, and made 34 politicized indictments on dubious charges unconnected to his mandate.

The Mueller team discovered nothing connected to phony allegations of possible Trump team/Russia collusion to triumph over Hillary, no collusion or obstruction of justice."  https://stephenlendman.org/2019/04/report-on-muellers-witch-hunt-exposes-russiagate-hoax/?fbclid=IwAR1RV49fQgWXcgpej2qU0OZ-ICuyrY6QNED6FeCABvYXasv-uILHGJraVnU


April 27 2019

drdej197

IQ TEST 2 and see you all soon

Here is a quick and easy way to locate the center of any circle using a compass and a straight edge ruler only.
If you have never seen the question before and can solve the problem in 10 minutes .... your IQ is +2 SD (>= 130)....+4 SD (>= 160) people

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C5s30Y4FGX0

drdej197

IQ TEST 1

25 MATH RIDDLES TO BOOST YOUR BRAIN POWER - YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dxpec2_v7r0
  
▶ 15:05  Uploaded by 7-Second Riddles
These 25 math riddles, picture puzzles and logic riddles will definitely boost your brain power. 03:31 just a ...

drdej197

you tube

Congratulation to all of you IQ high ...this is outstanding easy...one suggestion to move to no 1 if a You Tube link automatically starts to play...  Neutron Star Collision Detected - Where Did It Happen?  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7Tit-O7HedE 
drdej197

Research Students Reading List no 2

TRUST.ORG
http://www.trust.org/item/20150611150337-8hjcq

Over 20 million in war-torn Yemen need humanitarian aid – UNICEF


RUSSIA INSIDER 
http://russia-insider.com/en

Maduro's Video Appeal to the American People Not to Start ANOTHER War - Full Transcript

He says Americans shouldn't trust their media. We couldn't agree more.


SPUTNIK NEWS
http://sputniknews.com/

MOSCOW (Sputnik) - The UK Parliament will debate the Withdrawal Deal on 29 March, Leader of the House of Commons Andrea Leadsom said Thursday, but it is unclear if there will be a meaningful vote.


VOX NEWS
http://www.vox.com/

Conservative media’s war on AOC is hammering her poll numbers

Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez’s national poll numbers are pretty bad — and conservative media attacks appear to be a key reason why.

RT NEWS
http://rt.com/news/

Germany extends ban on Saudi arms sales despite pressure from Paris & London


VT
http://www.veteranstoday.com/  US approves secret sale of nuclear tech to Saudi Arabia

…from Press TV, Tehran 

[ Editor’s Note: None of this should come as a surprise to anyone. The story is another chapter not just of unipolarism on the global scale, but the Trump administration flipping the bird at Congress in terms of getting a broader authorization on nuclear tech transfer to rogue state Saudi Arabia.

 

Insider Scoop at VT: Trump Has Begged Saudi Intel, the Khashoggi Killers, to “Get” Biden and Bezos (updated/expanded)

…by Gordon Duff, VT Senior Editor

Introduction:  It isn’t that we all got played it is just that everything “we” are fed or allowed to see is a total lie.  Our sources, quite surprisingly, tell us that the Deep State using their “dynamic duo” of Barr and Mueller, CIA operatives for 40 plus years, we are told, to keep Trump in power long enough to allow America and Russia to be brought to their knees. 

Our story began with an operation by Saudi intelligence against former Vice President Joe Biden and Jeff Bezos of Amazon.  We now find it is much wider, like that was a surprise.  https://www.veteranstoday.com/2019/03/30/insider-scoop-at-vt-trump-has-begged-saudi-intel-the-khashoggi-killers-to-get-biden-and-bezos/

 

Freemasonry and Satanism: The History of Albert Pike

THE “POPE” OF THE AMERICAN MASONS 
WHICH MADE THE KU KLUX KLAN
AND CREATED THE PALLADISM WITH MAZZINI
TODAY IN THE USA HAS A MONUMENT!

______ Fabio Giuseppe Carlo Carisio per VT Italia

“In conscience and sincerely I believe that the Masonic Order is, if not the greatest, one of the greatest moral and political evils that weighs on the whole Union” 
John Quincy Adams, VI President of the United States
Letters on Freemasonry “Letters on Freemasonry”, 1833

“Our battle is not against creatures of blood and flesh, but against the principalities and powers, against the rulers of this world of darkness, against the evil spirits who live in the celestial regions” 
Saint Paul – Letter to the Ephesians – 6.12   https://www.veteranstoday.com/2019/03/30/freemasonry-and-satanism-the-history-of-albert-pike/

 

 

 


CANADA TALKS 
http://canadatalksisraelpalestine.ca/

US approves secret sale of nuclear tech to Saudi Arabia


ELECTRONIC RESISTANCE
http://www.electronicresistance.net/



BURNING BLOGGER
https://theburningbloggerofbedlam.wordpress.com/

What happened in Christchurch, New Zealand, is not surprising.

An event like that has been coming: and there’s going to be more of them elsewhere. With the extent of the continuous propaganda and brainwashing content (or experiment) being run across the uglier sections of the Internet, it’s actually surprising that something on this scale hasn’t happened sooner.

Whether it’s as a part of the organised psy-op to create the ‘race war‘ or it’s just as a result of the mass conditioning being carried out on vast numbers of people, things like this have been – and still are – very much on the cards.

False Flag? Who knows? Possibly.


SYRIA 360 
https://syria360.wordpress.com/

Syria

Al Jafaari’s Remarks to Press at the UN on Golan and Israel’s Attack on Aleppo

Posted by Internationalist 360° on March 28, 2019

Political Science MPhil/PhD

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)


JONATHAN COOK  

A very brief lesson in how power works

6 March 2019

What the left wants to talk about: How we change our societies to make them fairer, more transparent and more caring. How we tackle impending climate catastrophe through some kind of Green New Deal. How we conduct a truly ethical foreign policy that doesn’t give powerful western states the right to invade weaker states, or [...]>>>>>>>

https://www.jonathan-cook.net/blog/

Political Science MPhil/PhD

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)

 

Would railing at a Labour Saudi lobby be racist?

9 March 2019

Owen Jones has made a short video discussing Labour’s crisis over anti-semitism. There are some good elements to it, not least the warning against conspiratorial thinking, and an admission, admittedly a fairly limited one, that the Labour leadership should not be accused of being anti-semitic (and implicitly that the party is not “institutionally anti-semitic”.)

Sadly, however, there is little more to recommend. This is another example of how Jones has failed to grasp the larger issues involved, and how he views the anti-semitism issue through an astoundingly narrow lens – one that refuses to depart from a simplistic identity politics.

https://www.jonathan-cook.net/blog/2019-03-09/would-railing-at-a-labour-saudi-lobby-be-racist/

Political Science MPhil/PhD

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)

 

More than bad faith behind anti-semitism slurs

4 March 2019

The moral panic generated by journalists and politicians over a supposed Labour ‘anti-semitism crisis’ is rooted in a perverse kind of reality – unconscious dread at the prospect of their inner narrative and worldview breaking apart

John Harris, a columnist who by the Guardian’s current dismal standards is considered on the newspaper’s left, has added his voice to the paper’s endless contributions on Labour’s supposed “anti-semitism crisis”. Sadly, his is typical of the paper’s misrepresentations of the issue.   https://www.jonathan-cook.net/blog/2019-03-04/anti-semitism-smear-corbyn-labour/

 

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)

 

The attack on Facebook is not for our benefit

18 February 2019

It’s some achievement to get me sympathising with Mark Zuckerberg. But denunciations from a powerful combination of a parliamentary committee in the UK and self-appointed watchdogs of the new media like the Guardian almost managed it.

The digital, culture, media and sport select committee finally published a damning report into Facebook after an 18-month investigation, as reported today by the Guardian.

https://www.jonathan-cook.net/blog/2019-02-18/facebook-criticism-uk/

Political Science MPhil/PhD

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)

 

Anti-semitism vigilantes are feeding the far-right

16 February 2019

 

Has anyone else noticed how almost anything you say nowadays – if it’s leftwing – can suddenly be cited as proof of your anti-semitism?

That is, if you haven’t already been denounced as a Kremlin stooge.

Oppose the regular neoconservative regime-change operations, such as the latest one targeting Venezuela, and point to the long record of war crimes committed by one of its current architects, Elliott Abrams, and that apparently is probable evidence that you’re an anti-semite.

https://www.jonathan-cook.net/blog/2019-02-16/anti-semitism-vigilantes-are-feeding-the-far-right/

Political Science MPhil/PhD

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)

 

The attack on Facebook is not for our benefit

18 February 2019

It’s some achievement to get me sympathising with Mark Zuckerberg. But denunciations from a powerful combination of a parliamentary committee in the UK and self-appointed watchdogs of the new media like the Guardian almost managed it.

The digital, culture, media and sport select committee finally published a damning report into Facebook after an 18-month investigation, as reported today by the Guardian.

https://www.jonathan-cook.net/blog/2019-02-18/facebook-criticism-uk/

Political Science MPhil/PhD

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)

 

SHANNON WATCH
http://www.shannonwatch.org/

Vigil Held at Limerick Prison for US Veterans for Peace Activists

Thu, 28/03/2019 - 10:04 by shannonwatch  

On March 27th a peace vigil was held at Limerick prison for Us Veterans for Peace Tarak Kauff and Ken Mayers. They are displaying the larger version of the banner that Ken and Tarak took into Shannon Airport on March 17th when they attempted to inspect and investigate a US military contracted plane.

Political Science MPhil/PhD

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)


WSWS 
https://www.wsws.org/en/

Detroit autoworkers discuss upcoming meetings on “The Threat of Fascism and How to Fight it”

By Jerry White, 29 March 2019

Workers discussed the New Zealand massacre and upcoming meetings on how to fight fascism, featuring Christoph Vandreier, deputy national secretary of the German Socialist Equality Party.

Political Science MPhil/PhD

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)


ICH
http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/

 

The U.S. is failing economically--making bombs and debt--raping its resources, siphoning wealth to the top and hard-wiring inequity.   - Continue  http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/51347.htm

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)

 

 

ALTERNET
http://www.alternet.org/

Do any of the Democratic presidential candidates understand the power of peace?

Forty-five years after Congress passed the War Powers Act in the wake of the Vietnam War, it has finally used it for the first time, to try to end the…

Political Science MPhil/PhD

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)

 


THE NATION 
http://www.thenation.com/#

What We Should Learn From the Mueller Report

Mueller debunked claims of conspiracy with Russia, but the indictments and convictions resulting from his investigation should spur both Democrats and the media to focus on the full scope of Trump’s misrule.

The Nation

Political Science MPhil/PhD

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)


FAIR
http://fair.org/

‘They Had Already Decided They Wanted to Invade Iraq’

CounterSpin interviews with Robert Dreyfuss and Diana Duarte on media and the Iraq War

Janine Jackson  https://fair.org/home/they-had-already-decided-they-wanted-to-invade-iraq/

The Homeless 8-Year-Old Chess Champion and Other Horrific ‘Uplifting’ Stories

There’s a certain genre of light-hearted human-interest stories that are common across most news platforms. Soft news, such as an autistic Arkansas teen winning a basketball scholarship (NBC, 11/29/18), a Tampa Bay area photographer helping animals get adopted (ABC Action News, 3/20/19) or an injured tortoise receiving a new 3D-printed shell (Huffington Post, 5/23/16) are designed to pique interest and raise viewers’ spirits.  https://fair.org/home/the-homeless-8-year-old-chess-champion-and-other-horrific-uplifting-stories/

Political Science MPhil/PhD

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)


INTELLIHUB
https://www.intellihub.com/

Venezuela military deploys S-300 missiles following Russian troop arrival

By Zero Hedge -

March 25, 2019

https://www.intellihub.com/venezuela-military-deploys-s-300-missiles-following-russian-troop-arrival/

Political Science MPhil/PhD

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)


UPROOTED PALESTINIANS’S BLOG
https://uprootedpalestinians.wordpress.com/

PCHR Weekly Report On Israeli Human Rights Violations in the Occupied Palestinian Territory (21 – 27 March 2019) March 28, 2019

Israeli forces continued with systematic crimes, in the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt), for the week of 21 – 27 March, 2019.

Political Science MPhil/PhD

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)

 

TRAPLEY
http://tarpley.net/

Republican Genocide vs. American People: All Protections for Pre-Existing Conditions to Disappear; Ten Essential Health Care Benefits No Longer Mandatory; Annual and Lifetime Coverage Caps Would Return; Insurers Free to Drop Sick Policy Holders; No More Subsidies, 25-Year Olds on Parents’ Policies, or Limits on Out-of-Pocket Expenses;

Political Science MPhil/PhD

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)


THE SLEUTH JOURNAL 
http://www.thesleuthjournal.com/

Globalist Plan for Human Control

Posted by James Hall

Date: March 09, 2019

in: Globalism, New World Order, Sleuth Journal, Society, Special Interests, US News, World News

Political Science MPhil/PhD

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)


THE INTERCEPT
https://firstlook.org/theintercept/

The Case Against AIPAC

 

Deconstructed

In The Intercept’s new podcast, columnist Mehdi Hasan unpacks the most consequential news event of the week, while challenging the mainstream media’s tired takes. As a Brit, a Muslim, and an immigrant based in Donald Trump's Washington, D.C., Hasan gives a refreshingly provocative perspective on the ups and downs of American and global politics. New episodes every Thursday. New to podcasting? Click here.

Political Science MPhil/PhD

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)

 

DEMOCRACY NOW
http://www.democracynow.org/

“People Are Going to Die”: The Cost of Industry Deregulation by Lobbyists Under Trump

After two deadly crashes, the Senate holds its first hearing on how the Federal Aviation Administration lets the airline industry regulate itself. This comes as the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources will hold confirmation hearings today on Trump’s nominee to head the Interior Department, David Bernhardt, a former oil lobbyist. Meanwhile, a federal jury in California has just ordered Monsanto to pay over $80 million to a cancer survivor whose illness was found to have been partly caused by the herbicide Roundup. “When we see these regulatory issues, they’re often abstract, and people maybe don’t pay attention to them,” says Robert Weissman, president of Public Citizen. “What they fail to realize is that, actually, failed regulation means people are going to die.” >>>>>> https://www.democracynow.org/2019/3/28/people_are_going_to_die_the

Political Science MPhil/PhD

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)

 

COMMON DREAMS
http://www.commondreams.org/

'Sickening': Trump Mocks Asylum-Seekers Fleeing Violence

"The single most powerful person on the planet mocking some of the most vulnerable people on the planet."

by

Jake Johnson, staff writer >>>>>> https://www.commondreams.org/news/2019/03/29/sickening-trump-mocks-asylum-seekers-fleeing-violence-michigan-rally

If You Cannot Trust Saudis With Bone Saw, Says US Lawmaker, 'You Should Not Trust Them With Nuclear Weapons'

Trump administration's secret authorizations of nuclear technology sales to Saudi Arabia spark alarm in Congress

by

Jessica Corbett, staff writer

The revelation that the Trump administration secretly authorized several U.S. companies to sell nuclear technology and assistance to Saudi Arabia is generating alarm over ongoing negotiations about a broader deal that critics worry could eventually lead to a nuclear-armed Saudi Arabia.

The Daily Beast and Reuters reported Wednesday that Energy Secretary Rick Perry had approved at least six Part 810 authorizations, which "allow companies to do preliminary work on nuclear power ahead of any deal but not ship equipment that would go into a plant."  https://www.commondreams.org/news/2019/03/29/if-you-cannot-trust-saudis-bone-saw-says-us-lawmaker-you-should-not-trust-them

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)

 

SAMIDOUN
http://samidoun.ca/

Israel’s official anti-BDS ministry behind attacks on Rasmea Odeh

https://samidoun.net/2019/03/israels-official-anti-bds-ministry-behind-attacks-on-rasmea-odeh/

Political Science MPhil/PhD

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)

 


THE FREE THOUGHT PROJECT .COM 
http://thefreethoughtproject.com/

Cops Film Themselves Viciously Beating Suicidal Hospital Patient for Their Own Pleasure

After arresting a drug-dealing cop, the FBI searched his cell phone and found a video of him savagely attacking a hospital patient for his own enjoyment.

By

Matt Agorist

-

March 28, 2019

https://thefreethoughtproject.com/cops-beat-hospital-patient-video/

Political Science MPhil/PhD

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)


SPUTNIK 
http://sputniknews.com/

US President Donald Trump's decision to recognise the Golan Heights, which Israel seized from Syria during the 1967 Six-Day War and formally annexed in 1981, as a part of Israeli territory has drawn much criticism from around the globe. >>>>>> https://sputniknews.com/middleeast/201903291073652042-us-arab-handshakes-iran/

Political Science MPhil/PhD

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)


JOHN PILGER.COM
http://johnpilger.com/

John Pilger invokes George Orwell in calling on his compatriots to stand up for the freedom of 'a distinguished Australian', the founder and editor of WikiLeaks, Julian Assange, and for 'real journalism of a kind now considered exotic'.  Image © George Burchett 2019

Political Science MPhil/PhD

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)


CROWDFUND INSIDER 
http://www.crowdfundinsider.com/

“Talking one’s bag” is common in crypto, and crypto proponents, many of whom were early investors in the cryptocurrencies they talk up, display an almost pavlovian fervour for their preferred coins. But just in case it’s not obvious, developer Luke Childs has created a Chrome or… Read More

Is Western Democracy a Real Democracy?

https://wordpress.com/read/feeds/55330411/posts/2216064975

https://www.edocr.com/v/5gl8dywd/drdejahang2015/Western-Democracy-A-Farce-And-A-Sham

http://www.twitlonger.com/show/n_1sp9pjo

https://www.docdroid.net/8mdDU0m/western-democracy-a-farce-and-a-sham.doc#page=138

Jump into SLIDE SHARE

http://www.slideshare.net/DrFereidounDejahang/presentations

REMINDER: some of the drawings/charts etc..SmartDraw is not clear in DOCS.GOOGLE/DRIVE.GOOGLE

Student Room Conscious Mind Rostam Cafe

Weekly Lesson-PPTs PDF...Articles...Research papers ..

DOCS.GOOGLE

https://docs.google.com/presentation/u/0/

DRIVE.GOOGLE

https://drive.google.com/drive/u/0/my-

GO TO

SLIDE SHARE

http://www.slideshare.net/DrFereidounDejahang/presentations

My links and...

http://www.twitlonger.com/show/n_1sp9pjo

https://drdejahang19.edublogs.org

FULL PPTS LESSONS ...

https://docs.google.com/presentation/u/0/

Antidote to Fake News/ FB/ Twitter, Spreely, VK..is a Social Platform for people with moral compass who are fed up with the constant bullying and harassment by the tec- tyrants at Facebook, Twitter, … An Antidote to Fake News/ FB/Twitter...Spreely, VK.., your identity in links listed below is secure, our opinions are not rejected by the thought police guard dogs tec- tyrants at FB/TWITTER  ..and WE can SPEAK FREELY.

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https://www.slideshare.net/DrFereidounDejahang/presentations

DOCS.GOOGLE/DRIVE.GOOGLE

Weekly Lesson-PPTs PDF...Articles...Research papers..

DOCS.GOOGLE

https://docs.google.com/presentation/u/0/

DRIVE.GOOGLE

https://drive.google.com/drive/u/0/my-drive

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IS WESTERN DEMOCRACY A REAL DEMOCRACY?

WORDPRESS.COM

https://wordpress.com/read/feeds/55330411/posts/2216064975

EDOCR,COM

https://www.edocr.com/v/5gl8dywd/drdejahang2015/Western-Democracy-A-Farce-And-A-Sham

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VENERA.SOCIAL

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SCOOP.IT

https://www.scoop.it/u/drdejahang02  AOC

JOINDIASPORA.COM

https://joindiaspora.com/people/b56217a0161c01349ac50242ac110004  AOC

PINTERESET

https://www.pinterest.co.uk/fereydoundejaha/ 

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https://gnusocial.no/dejahang2019z/all

GNU ALL

 https://gnu.io/social/try/

MASTODON

https://mastodon.host/web/accounts/373814

https://freeradical.zone/web/accounts/101888

PLEROMA.IR

https://pleroma.fr/main/friends

MOVIM

https://nl.movim.eu/?news

DAISPORA 

https://podupti.me/    ; https://diaspora.club/    ; https://diaspora.club/stream

FREINDICA/ VENERA

https://dir.friendica.social/servers

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HAWAAR.COM

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TARINGA.NET

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https://nl.movim.eu/     pavilion 23

PLEROMA.FR

https://pleroma.fr/dej2018   pavilion 23

SPREELY.COM

https://www.spreely.com/66429   pavilion 23

https://gnusocial.cc/drdej719/all  pavilion 23

PLEROMA.IR

https://pleroma.fr/main/friends   pavilion 23

MOVIM

https://nl.movim.eu/?news  pavilion 23

DOCS.GOOGLE

https://docs.google.com/presentation/u/0/  pavilion 23

DRIVE.GOOGLE

https://drive.google.com/drive/u/0/my-drive  pavilion 23

SLIDE SHARE

http://www.slideshare.net/DrFereidounDejahang/pres...   pavilion 23

IS WESTERN DEMOCRACY A REAL DEMOCRACY?

WORDPRESS.COM

https://wordpress.com/read/feeds/55330411/posts/2216064975  pavilion 23

EDOCR,COM

https://www.edocr.com/v/5gl8dywd/drdejahang2015/Western-Democracy-A-Farce-And-A-Sham  pavilion 23

 

NEXT

Ph.D Research Case Study

Variable, Determinants….PROCESS MODEL….with 42 Variables and determinant and 3 mathematical formulas

CASE STUDY Why  G+ lost the war  to ARAK NET

HOW ARAK NET WON THE WAR ?

1) ARAK NET : Shareholders Board Members Managers 5 and Company 3

2) All members cashed their Bitcoin investmen

3) THE BOARD LOOKED AT:

Facebook reveals every creepy bit of information that it stores on its …

https://www.independent.co.uk › LIFE › Tech › News

 

23 Aug 2016 - Facebook has revealed the huge number of things it knows about people … on January 4, 2013 in Lille, Northern France ( DENIS CHARLET/AFP/Getty Images ) ….. Parents; Expectant parents; Mothers, divided by “type” (soccer, trendy, etc.) …. Independent Minds Comments can be posted by members of our …

Facebook stores vast amounts of information about its users — and it …

https://www.independent.co.uk › LIFE › Tech › Features

10 Apr 2017 - Facebook is holding a vast amount of information on you. … Facebook stores vast amounts of information about its users — and it can all be downloaded … Gadgets and tech news in pictures ….. Independent Minds Comments can be posted by members of our membership scheme, Independent Minds.

4) THE BOARD carefully studied WHO REALLY CREATED fake accounts by billion:

Facebook removed over 1.5 billion fake accounts in the last six months

HOLD ON NOT TOO FAST..tell me who created them? Me or my mum?

https://www.engadget.com/2018/…/facebook-transparency-report-fake-account-remo...

15 Nov 2018 - There’s a lot to unpack here, but at a high level Facebook says it removed over 1.5 billion fake accounts from April through September, up from …

5) ARAK NET THEN LOOKED AT …. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DBfsgcswlYQ

 FILM ....WHY?

A state-of-the-art robotics company where an accounting clerk has discovered a discrepancy involving millions of dollars and....... But as Christian… the books and gets closer to the truth, it is the body count that starts to rise…MONEY IN MONEY OUT…SHARE UP…

5) THE ARK NET decides to win by cheating…and based on existing trends …see photo- employers 3 layers…a- b- c indirectly 100 people in 10 countries to Create FAKE ARAK NET (100X20X360) and also employs school kids and...

Also for promotion as well as using other methods... in 10 years ARAK NET had 500,000,000, members/followers….mainly FAKE ACCOUNT …with 1 in n

6) So with advertising customers unaware of the ARAK NET tricks, money pours in

7) With plenty of money this time ARAK NET employs 500 people in 20 countries..so Arab speaking Fake Account Creator concentrate on on Arab speaking and so on

8) ARAK NET HAS 2 BILLION MEMBERS

ALSO an average of 353,000 babies is born each day around the world. The crude birth rate is 18.9 births per 1,000 population or 255 births globally per minute or 4.3 births every second (as of Dec. 2013 estimate). 154,889 deaths take place as daily average

353,000 babies are born each day ARE APPLYING FOR ARAK NET

THE CONCLUSION IS… ARAK NET HAS CHEATED TO WIN THE MARKET AND MAKES BILLION >>> WHAT CAN YOU DO ABOUT IT>NOTHING> THIS IS DEMOCRACY PR (Loss/Gain) =MD [A-X] + HC(EC- AC)+ HL(EL- AL) AC = a EC (1+Σ xi) and similarly AL = a EL (1+Σ xi)

xi = % of .........Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

Rotation Method: Equamax with Kaiser Normalization. Rotation converged in n iterations. 6 x Σ di2 r (rho) = 1- n (n2 –1) 6x2591= 0.91 55(552-1)

CASE STUDY 2

Why FB TWITTER suspended me FOR GOOD

IT STARTED LIKE... 'This media may contain sensitive material. Your media settings are configured to warn you when media may be sensitive'.

THAT MEANS IF YOU DON’T SUPPORT CORPORATE MEDIA we...and...

PLEAS leave Tec-Tyrants, Thought Police, Guard Dogs  FB, Twitter and Never go near Mini Thought Police Guard Dog-Quora in Mountain View, California, community Jimmy Wales, Richard A. Muller, Justin Trudeau, Barack Obama, Hillary Clinton, Adrián Lamo)/

I am fed up with their constant bullying and harassment (Tech Tyrants at Facebook, Twitter, Mini Tec- Tyrant Quora -Mountain View ..The Thought Police Guard Dogs Tec-Tyrants (TPGDTT))

I asked the question in Quora ..Why is Churchill so glorified in the west, in spite of being a racist man? And you are threatening

FB Suspended me 16 times/ Twitter received order .. and banned me for life.. https://twitter.com/fdejahang

NEXT

Fake news antidote

Soraya Sepahpour-Ulrich Tim Anderson  barry
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drdej197

Research Students Reading List no 1

READING LIST

 

Political Science MPhil/PhD

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)

 

CLARITY OF SIGNAL Exposing

Geopolitical Madness

https://clarityofsignal.com/

EU Fascism Embraced: Over 20 Highly Revealing Videos Highlight US and EU Support for Fascist Pro-Nazi Military Battalions in Ukraine

The following post features over 20 videos which provide a pragmatic/realistic view of the fascist make-up and characteristics of the Ukrainian military battalions that the EU, US, Canada and Australia have been supporting, financing and weaponizing since the start of the Ukrainian coup/conflict in 2014.

https://clarityofsignal.com/2017/07/02/eu-fascism-embraced-over-20-highly-revealing-videos-highlight-us-and-eu-support-for-fascist-pro-nazi-military-battalions-in-ukraine/

TASS

People in civilian clothes open fire at protesters in Caracas — paper

CARACAS, April 1. /TASS/. A group of armed people wearing civilian clothes opened fire at people taking part in an anti-government protest in the Libertador district of Venezuela’s capital Caracas, the Nacional newspaper has reported.

Two people were taken to hospital with gunshot wounds, the paper said.

Photos from the site of the attack show demonstrate two men, one carrying a weapon resembling a rifle, the other holds a pistol. The paper blamed the violence on Collectivo groups - irregular community organizations that support the current government.

Rallies to protest massive power outages took place in Caracas and other cities on Sunday. More:
http://tass.com/world/1051443

 

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)

 

RESUMEN

By contrast, here is a review by Jose Negron Valera of the law breaking by Trump 's puppet Guaido –  https://www.resumen-english.org/

 

US is Manufacturing a Crisis in Venezuela so That There is Chaos and ‘Needed’ Intervention

By Eva Bartlett, March 29, 2019

Political Science MPhil/PhD

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)

 

Which and How Many Laws has Juan Guaido Violated

By Jose Negron Valera on March 27, 2019

Sixty days has passed since Juan Guaido proclaimed himself Interim President of Venezuela at a public square in Caracas.

Since that day, the South American country has undergone border invasion attempts, the theft of over 35 billion dollars in assets and properties abroad, sabotage of the electrical system and more conspiracies are in the planning to carry out terrorist actions in the country as part of what the Nicolas Maduro Administration has called a “multidimensional war” against the .... https://www.resumen-english.org/2019/03/which-and-how-many-laws-has-juan-guaido-violated/

emocracy?


TeleSUR English

Published on 30 Mar 2019

SUBSCRIBE 105K

FTS News Bits | Nearly 270 Palestinians have been killed by the Israeli military since the weekly protests began in March of last year. Let's take a look at the major events which have occurred since Palestinians launched this march to demand to go back to their ancestral land. https://videosenglish.telesurtv.net/v...

SHOW MORE

What Has Happened Since The Great March Of Return Was Launched?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PPBIzVFzqNA

Political Science MPhil/PhD

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)


Justo en la Diana

Premiered on 29 Mar 2019

SUBSCRIBE 77

Los altos del Golán, un territorio sirio ilegalmente ocupado por Israel vuelve a ser el centro de la discordia entre ambos países. El presidente de Estados Unidos firmó una declaraciòn que avala la anexión de ese territorio a Israel sin tener en cuenta el rechazo de la comunidad internacional. ¿Qué son los Altos del Golán?¿Por qué Israel quiere mantener el dominio sobre una zona que nunca le perteneció? Justo en la Diana analiza el tema.

SHOW MORE

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EBfULI6l6kE

WASHINGTON EXAMMINER

https://www.washingtonexaminer.com/news

Trump complains about drugs from Colombia. There are always greater exports of drugs from countries under US military occupation. fghanistan and Colombia now, Laos in the 70s, same story...Hypocrites/2 faced...are all the same

Trump slams Colombia's president: 'He has done nothing for us'

by Steven Nelson

 | March 29, 2019 02:12 PM

https://www.washingtonexaminer.com/news/white-house/trump-abruptly-slams-colombias-president-he-has-done-nothing-for-us

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)

 

China delivers first batch of aid to Venezuela, without pretending to appoint a Chinese preferred 'interim president' of that country. Thank you China and PressTV

https://www.presstv.com/

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)

 

@DrMarcusP

More

The outcome of the Ukrainian presidential election is no joke, despite how Western media is treating the matter. Politics is about the lives of ordinary people. But then the West cares nothing for the welfare of the Ukrainian population - only brotherly Russia does. #Ukraine

 

 

 

 

 

Second woman accuses Joe Biden of inappropriate behavior: 'I thought he was going to kiss me'

Ledyard King  USA TODAY

Published 8:36 PM EDT Apr 1, 2019

WASHINGTON – A second woman is accusing former Vice President Joe Biden of unwanted, inappropriate behavior, the Hartford Courant reported Monday.

Amy Lappos of Connecticut said Biden, a potential 2020 Democratic presidential candidate, touched her and rubbed his nose on hers during a 2009 political fundraiser in Greenwich, the Courant reported.

https://eu.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2019/04/01/joe-biden-second-woman-makes-accusations-inappropriate-behavior/3337400002/

 

Political Science MPhil/PhD

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)

 

THERE ARE NO SUNGLASSES 
https://therearenosunglasses.wordpress.com/

Divide and Conquer: The Anglo-American Imperial Project by Andrew G. Marshall

Establishing an “Arc of Crisis”

Many would be skeptical that the Anglo-Americans would be behind terrorist acts in Iraq, such as with the British in Basra,

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)

 

THE IRAN PROJECT 
http://theiranproject.com/

IRNA – Iranian Foreign Ministry spokesman says the US should know that it cannot rob Iranians from their assets by scattering lies.

Bahram Qasemi made the remarks Wednesday night in reaction to Luxemburg court act which rejects US anti-Iran claims over 9/11 incident.

“A Luxembourg court rejected a US request to compensate victims of the Twin Tower attacks by seizing assets from Iran, a country an American court has accused of involvement in the event that killed thousands,” Luxembourg Times reported.>>>>>> https://theiranproject.com/blog/2019/03/28/fm-spox-warns-us-against-robbing-iranians-assets/

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)

 

FARS NEWS
http://english.farsnews.com/

US Sends Large Military Convoy to Syria Despite Claim of ISIL Full Collapse

 

TEHRAN (FNA)- A large US military convoy entered Northeastern Syria past weekend despite President Donald Trump’s declaration of victory against the ISIL in the war-torn country.

Political Science MPhil/PhD

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)

 

TASNIM
http://www.tasnimnews.com/english/

Iran Hails Luxembourg Court Decision on US Seizure of Assets

TEHRAN (Tasnim) – Iran’s Foreign Ministry on Wednesday welcomed a Luxembourg court's decision to dismiss a US court appeal to seize Iranian assets over 9/11 attacks.

Political Science MPhil/PhD

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)

 

TEHRAN TIMES
http://www.tehrantimes.com/

Trump provokes global anger by recognising Israel’s claim to Golan Heights

Syria has vowed to retake the Golan Heights as Donald Trump’s call for the US to recognise the occupied territory as part of Israel elicited strong responses from Russia, Turkey, and Iran.

The president ended half a century of US foreign policy and broke from post-second world war international consensus that forbids territorial conquest during war with a tweet on Thursday that said it was time “to fully recognise Israel’s sovereignty over the Golan Heights”.

>>>>>>> https://www.tehrantimes.com/news/434281/Trump-provokes-global-anger-by-recognising-Israel-s-claim-to

Political Science MPhil/PhD

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)


PALASTINE NEWS NETWORK 
http://english.pnn.ps/category/policy/

Golan: Expected US Policy Shift Reflects Disdain for Rights

 

Jerusalem/PNN/ Syrians in Occupied Territory Protected Under International Humanitarian Law A decision by the Trump administration to deny the reality of Israel’s occupation of the Golan Heights would demonstrate disregard …

Political Science MPhil/PhD

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)


RAW STORY
http://www.rawstory.com/category/nation/

Man charged with New Zealand mosque attacks gave cash to Austrian far-right: Chancellor Kurz

Austria’s far-right Identitarian Movement received cash from the man charged with killing 50 people in mass shootings at mosques in Christchurch, New Zealand, Austrian Chancellor Sebastian Kurz said on Wednesday. “We can now confirm that there...

Political Science MPhil/PhD

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)


COMMON DREAMS
http://www.commondreams.org/

US-Backed Coalition Bombs Yemen Hospital, Killing at Least Seven Including Four Children

An airstrike on a hospital in Yemen Tuesday killed seven people including four children, said a humanitarian group.

The global charity Save the Children, which supports the medical facility, is calling for a swift investigation into the incident and a suspension of arms sales to all parties to the conflict—including American arms-recipent Saudi Arabia.

“We are shocked and appalled by this outrageous attack," said Carolyn Miles, President & CEO of Save the Children, in a statement. "Innocent children and health workers have lost their lives in what appears to been an indiscriminate attack on a hospital in a densely populated civilian area. Attacks like these are a breach of international law." >>>>>>> https://www.commondreams.org/news/2019/03/27/us-backed-coalition-bombs-yemen-hospital-killing-least-seven-including-four-children

Political Science MPhil/PhD

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)

 

THE DAILY BEAST
http://www.thedailybeast.com/politics.html

RUH ROH

The Anti-Vaxx Movement Is Mobilizing Like Never Before

Funding is on the rise and so are the attempts to affect legislation, disrupt hearings, and elect like-minded lawmakers. >>>>>>>  https://www.thedailybeast.com/the-anti-vaxxer-movement-is-getting-more-organized-and-powerful-than-ever-before?ref=wrap

Political Science MPhil/PhD

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)


WE ARE NOT NUMBERS
http://wearenotnumbers.org/

After fleeing Iraq, Palestinian family struggles–and reminisces–in Gaza- See more at: https://wearenotnumbers.org/home/Story/After_fleeing_Iraq_Palestinian_family_struggles_in_Gaza

When the U.S. bombing of Iraq started in 2003, many people fled the country, including 18 Palestinian families who came to Gaza. This is the story of the Abo Obaid family, as told to me by one of the children, 21-year-old Rola.

“I feel I am a stranger in my native country, because I do not have the right to a Palestinian identity.” That is what Rola said just before sharing the tale about how she came to Gaza.

Rola’s paternal grandfather, Mohammed Abo Obaid, lived in Gaza, Palestine, until the 1967 war with Israel, when he left to study in Iraq. There, he completed his education, found a job, married and had children—including his son, Wajdy.

- See more at: https://wearenotnumbers.org/home/Story/After_fleeing_Iraq_Palestinian_family_struggles_in_Gaza

Political Science MPhil/PhD

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)

 

FOREIGN POLICY IN FOCUS 
http://fpif.org/

America’s Generals Haven’t Learned Anything from Iraq

Sixteen years after the Iraq War, the Army's official history of the war reads like a string of empty platitudes. >>>>>>

https://fpif.org/americas-generals-havent-learned-anything-from-iraq/

Political Science MPhil/PhD

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)

 

MONDOWEISS
http://mondoweiss.net/features

At the ‘worst checkpoint in the West Bank,’ Palestinians begin lining up at 3 a.m.

Kate on March 17, 2019

At Israel’s Checkpoint 300 in occupied Bethlehem, thousands of Palestinian workers queue for hours, starting at 3 am. The frantic clamouring has resulted in suffocation and broken ribs, and conditions have gotten worse in recent months, Al Jazeera reports.

Political Science MPhil/PhD

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)


THE EVENT CHRONICLE 
http://www.theeventchronicle.com/

MintPress Ever since the news broke on March 15 of two consecutive mass shootings at the Al Noor Mosque and Linwood Islamic Centre in Christchurch, New Zealand, corporate media has been determined to establish that suspect Brenton Tarrant acted alone in the terrorist attacks that took the lives of 50 innocent Muslim worshippers and wounded 50 others.

While mainstream media has been predictably eager to parade the tragedy as another chapter in the wave of rising Islamophobia and right-wing extremism globally, they have put equal effort into conscientiously avoiding any evidence that contradicts the ‘lone wolf’ theory they decided on in the initial hours following the first mass shooting in New Zealand since 1997. https://www.mintpressnews.com/

THE EVENT CHRONICLE 
http://www.theeventchronicle.com/

KIEV, UKRAINE — A former top official in Ukraine’s Security Service (SBU), who recently fled the country, has given explosive testimony regarding the involvement of the Ukrainian government in the 2014 downing of the MH-17 passenger plane. The incident, which killed all 283 passengers and 15 flight crew members on board, had been blamed on Russia by Ukraine’s government, the United States and much of Western media.>>>>>>>

https://www.mintpressnews.com/reasons-believe-vasily-prozorov-testimony-ukraine-role-downing-mh-17/256642/

Political Science MPhil/PhD

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)

 

INDEPENDENT>>> are you?
http://www.independent.co.uk/

Political Science MPhil/PhD

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)


RT.COM
http://rt.com/news/

'Get out of Syria first': Moscow reacts to Trump's demand to leave Venezuela

The Trump administration should make good on its own promise to pull troops out of Syria before telling others where they should or shouldn't be, the Russian Foreign Ministry said in reply to Washington's threat over Venezuela.


AH Tribune
http://ahtribune.com/world.html

March 23 ,2019

BY Ahmad Al Khaled

US Has a Plan for Eastern Syria, and It Relies on ISIS

After over a month of fierce clashes in the last stronghold of Islamic State in Baghuz village, Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) have announced "final defeat" of the terror group.

SDF, a force comprised of Kurdish and Arab units that is considered the closest ally of the US in the fight against ISIS in Syria, managed to overcome ISIS defenses with the support of the US-led International Coalition. The clashes resulted in severe casualties on both sides, while hundreds of terrorists, as well as their wives and children, surrendered to SDF. >>>>>>> https://ahtribune.com/world/north-africa-south-west-asia/syria-crisis/2990-us-plan.html

THE HILL
Senate passes bill allowing 9/11 victims to sue Saudi Arabia - The Hill

17 May 2016 - The Senate on Tuesday approved legislation that would allow victims of the 9/11 terror attacks to sue Saudi Arabia, defying vocal opposition ...>>>>>> https://thehill.com/blogs/floor-action/senate/280179-senate-passes-bill-allowing-9-11-victims-to-sue-saudi-arabia  AND NOW US COURT LIES THAT Iran ....


teleSUR English

https://www.telesurenglish.net/
Opinion > Articles

US Regime Change Blueprint Proposed Venezuelan Electricity Blackouts as 'Watershed Event' for 'Galvanizing Public Unrest'

By: Max Blumenthal >>>>>> https://www.telesurenglish.net/opinion/US-Regime-Change-Blueprint-Proposed-Venezuelan-Electricity-Blackouts-as-Watershed-Event-for-Galvanizing-Public-Unrest-20190315-0017.html


972 MAG
http://972mag.com/c/news/

WATCH: Israeli soldiers break into Palestinian school, arrest 10-year-old

Feminist Palestinian lawmaker free after 20 months in prison without trial

Khalida Jarrar is released from Israeli custody following almost two years under administrative detention. >>>>>>> https://972mag.com/israeli-frees-feminist-palestinian-lawmaker-after-20-months-without-trial/140355/

 


SYRIAN NEWS
http://www.syrianews.cc/

Israel Celebrates Mad Hatter Trump ‘Proclamation’: Bombs Aleppo

March 28, 2019 Miri Wood 0

Israel celebrated Mad Hatter President Trump’s “proclamation” that Golan, Syria was no longer Golan, Syria, by bombing Sheikh Najar industrial region of Aleppo. At 2300 local time 27 March, Israeli bombs targeted this neighborhood, with “several” missiles intercepted by Syria’s air defense system. Again, there was no report of deployment [Continue reading…] >>>>>> https://www.syrianews.cc/israel-celebrates-mad-hatter-trump-proclamation-bombs-aleppo/

 
ECONOMY IN CRISIS http://theeconomiccollapseblog.com/
Just Before The Great Recession, Mountains Of Unsold Goods Piled Up In U.S. Warehouses – And Now It Is Happening Again


LAROUCHEPAC

British Propaganda Bureau Exposed

The new British covert propaganda bureau, producing the "narrative" for international media as well as working as the permanent press office of the Syrian rebels, has been exposed in a series of articles by a Guardian investigative team.


https://larouchepac.com/20160515/putin-winning-through-creativity-us-must-learn-lesson#.VzlHsKETV4k.facebook


PATHEOS
http://www.patheos.com/

By Hena Tahir

On Saturday, Fox News host Jeanine Pirro said Minnesota Rep. Ilhan Omar was unconstitutional. Her basis? The fact that Ilhan wears a hijab, also known as a head-covering, which is a practice in not only Islam, but also Christianity and Judaism. So according to Pirro, Omar, and presumably any other individual who wears a veil, is anti-American. >>>>>> https://www.patheos.com/blogs/religionnow/2019/03/fox-news-jeanine-pirro-self-proclaimed-expert-on-how-american-an-american-is-hijab-ilhan-omar/

 

COUNTER PUNCH
http://www.counterpunch.org/

counterpunch.org

https://www.counterpunch.org/

March 27, 2019

Four Decades of Radical Radio: an Interview With WPKN’s Scott Harris

by Andy Piascik

March 27, 2019

Scott Harris has been hosting a show at WPKN, Bridgeport’s independent, alternative radio station, for a remarkable 42 years. He began in 1977 with a music show which he transformed a decade later to Counterpoint, a two-hour weekly program chock full of news, analysis, interviews and discussion not heard in corporate media.

 

Bill Martin

Watershed Moment on the Mall

by Bill Martin https://www.counterpunch.org/2019/03/27/watershed-moment-on-the-mall/

The Washington Mall incident displays the essence of the Democratic Party and the IdPol Left, and it is horrible

The incident at the Washington Mall, the so-called “confrontation” between Nathan Phillips and Nick Sandmann, is a watershed moment in American society.  Things are at the point where anything that can be used as a statement against President Trump will be, and what many Democrats and a great deal of the Identity Politics Left did, at a moment’s notice, was to simply pour out hate.  In doing this, these people showed what they are all about and what they have to “contribute” in this world, and it is horrible.

 

Robert J. Burrowes

Why Activists Fail  https://www.counterpunch.org/2019/03/27/why-activists-fail/

Despite enormous ongoing effort over more than a thousand years, during and since the formation and shaping of the modern world, and as the number of issues being contested has steadily increased, activists of many types have made insufficient progress on key issues, particularly in relation to ending violence and war (and the threat of nuclear war), stopping the exploitation of many peoples and halting the endless assaults on Earth’s biosphere.

 

March 26, 2019

Patrick Cockburn

How ISIS’s Brutal Project in the Middle East was Finally Overthrown  https://www.counterpunch.org/2019/03/26/how-isiss-brutal-project-in-the-middle-east-was-finally-overthrown/

Up to its dying days the self-declared Islamic State has retained the ability to top the news agenda, even as its fighters were losing their last battle for bomb-shattered villages in the deserts of eastern Syria. When their spokesman promised retaliation for the massacre of Muslims in the Christchurch mosques his threat was taken seriously.

 

Joshua Frank

To Celebrate or to Not? The Mueller Question   https://www.counterpunch.org/2019/03/26/to-celebrate-or-to-not-the-mueller-question/

Finally, it’s over. Well, sort of, anyway. Late Sunday afternoon, Attorney General Bill Barr released his much-anticipated summary of Bob Mueller’s Russia investigation. The big news, of course, was that nobody in Trump’s orbit “knowingly” coordinated with Russian efforts to disrupt the 2016 election. Trump won’t be charged with obstruction of justice and not a single American was indicted for conspiracy.

 

George Ochenski

The Fox in the Henhouse: Bernhardt at Interior  https://www.counterpunch.org/2019/03/26/the-fox-in-the-henhouse-bernhardt-at-interior/

 

Everyone has heard the old saying about “the fox guarding the hen house” — which generally means you wind up with a fat fox and dead chickens. That’s something Montana’s senators should keep in mind when the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee weighs Donald Trump’s nomination of former oil, gas and mining lobbyist David Bernhardt to be the next Secretary of the Interior following the December resignation of ethics-plagued Ryan Zinke.

 

Thomas Klikauer

Corporate Bullshit  https://www.counterpunch.org/2019/03/26/corporate-bullshit/

Business bullshit is about the meaningless language conjured up in schools, in banks, in consultancy firms, in politics, and in the media. This language drives thousands of business schools. It is this language that is handed down to MBAs.

 

Chelli Stanley

Detectives on Smollett Case Have Troubling Backgrounds   https://www.counterpunch.org/2019/03/26/detectives-on-smollett-case-have-troubling-backgrounds-2/

The Chicago Police department calls a survivor of violence a ‘liar’ and the world agrees?  Nah.  Whether we look at it logically, legally, or historically, there’s much more to the story than that.

I had never heard of Jussie Smollett before the attack and media coverage.  I don’t watch TV and had never watched Empire, but something seemed off in the way the story developed so I started investigating. 

 

William deBuys

12 Ways to Make Sense of the Border Mess   https://www.counterpunch.org/2019/03/26/12-ways-to-make-sense-of-the-border-mess/

Borders are cruel. I know this because I’ve been studying the U.S.-Mexico border for more than 40 years. It features prominently in two of my books, written in different decades. It keeps pulling me back. Every time I cross that border, I say to myself that this is no big deal — I’m used to it. And every time, I feel that familiar fear-or-flight jolt of adrenaline and hear the inner warning: Watch out! Things go wrong here.

 

Robert Fisk

Ardern’s Response to Christchurch has Put Other Leaders to Shame, But Not for Its Compassion Alone   https://www.counterpunch.org/2019/03/26/arderns-response-to-christchurch-has-put-other-leaders-to-shame-but-not-for-its-compassion-alone/

Drawing by Nathaniel St. Clair

Cometh the hour, cometh the woman. Jacinda Ardern won her spurs last week with her response to the Christchurch atrocity. But the world’s praise for her eloquence and compassion missed the point.

Ardern was different. She fought from the start like a real politician, scorning the killer, attacking racism and slapping back at Turkish president Erdogan’s revolting election propaganda – which used the murderer’s own video – then hitting out at US president Trump. And insisting that New Zealand’s gun laws would change forever.

 

Binoy Kampmark

Disinviting Jordan Peterson: the Faculty of Divinity, Cambridge and Approved Ideas  https://www.counterpunch.org/2019/03/26/disinviting-jordan-peterson-the-faculty-of-divinity-cambridge-and-approved-ideas/

 

James C. Kennedy

The Poisonous History of Neo-Classical Economics

 

Jenna Orkin

Quentin Crisp’s Posthumous Book, the Sequel  https://www.counterpunch.org/2019/03/26/the-poisonous-history-of-neo-classical-economics/

“The conscious and intelligent manipulation of the organized habits and opinions of the masses is an important element in democratic society. Those who manipulate this unseen mechanism of society constitute an invisible government which is the true ruling power of our country.”

— Edward Bernays

 

Elizabeth Keyes

My Russia Hot-Air Balloon  https://www.counterpunch.org/2019/03/26/my-russia-hot-air-balloon/

 

March 25, 2019

Jonathan Cook

Three Lessons for the Left from the Mueller Inquiry

Three Lessons for the Left from the Mueller Inquiry

by Jonathan Cook

 

White House photo by Joyce N. Boghosian


Here are three important lessons for the progressive left to consider now that it is clear the inquiry by special counsel Robert Mueller into Russiagate is never going to uncover collusion between Donald Trump’s camp and the Kremlin in the 2016 presidential election.

 

Dave Lindorff

The TSA’s Role as Journalist Harasser and Media ‘Watchdog’

The TSA’s Role as Journalist Harasser and Media ‘Watchdog’

by Dave Lindorff

Transportation Security Administration – Public Domain

Sometimes you have to leave the United States to understand how far this country has evolved towards becoming a police state.

I got a good example of this just last week on a trip with my harpsichordist wife to Vienna where she had been contracted to perform on Austrian State Radio in Vienna a concert of music by a leftist Jewish composer who settled in the US after fleeing from Austria just ahead of the Nazi Anschluss that took over and incorporated that country into Germany.

 

Tanya Golash-Boza – Michael Golash

Epifanio Camacho: a Militant Farmworker Brushed Out of History

Epifanio Camacho: a Militant Farmworker Brushed Out of History

by Tanya Golash-Boza – Michael Golash

 

Image Source Pakal Hatuey’s Youtube Video: Complete Interview With Epifanio Camacho

Cesar Chavez is perhaps best known for his role in the 1965-1970 Delano grape strike and boycott and his nonviolent tactics in those protests.

Although Chavez insisted on nonviolence, there was dissent within the National Farmworkers Association as some workers believed more militant tactics were necessary. One of these workers was Epifanio Camacho.  With Cesar Chavez day approaching, it is important to remember the work and life of Epifanio Camacho, who recently published his memoir.

 

Robert Fisk

Don’t Believe the Hype: Here’s Why ISIS Hasn’t Been Defeated

Don’t Believe the Hype: Here’s Why ISIS Hasn’t Been Defeated

by Robert Fisk

Drawing Nathaniel St. Clair

After all the headlines about the supposed defeat of Isis, anyone who doesn’t believe a word of it may seem a bit of a spoilsport. But whenever I read that victory has been declared – whether it be of the Bush “mission accomplished” variety or the “last Isis stronghold about to fall” fantasy – I draw in my breath. Because you can make a safe bet that it’s not true.

 

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)

 

Jack Rasmus

The Capitulation of Jerome Powell and the Fed

The Capitulation of Jerome Powell and the Fed

by Jack Rasmus

 

Photograph Source Federal Reserve – DSC_6329 – Publica Domain

This past week, on March 20, 2019, Federal Reserve chairman Jerome Powell announced the US central bank would not raise interest rates in 2019. The Fed’s benchmark rate, called the Fed Funds rate, is thus frozen at 2.375% for the foreseeable future, i.e. leaving the central bank virtually no room to lower rates in the event of the next recession, which is now just around the corner.

 

Lawrence Davidson

Israel’s Moves to the Right

 

John Feffer

After Trump

 

James Ridgeway

Good Agent, Bad Agent: Robert Mueller and 9/11

Good Agent, Bad Agent: Robert Mueller and 9/11

by James Ridgeway

This profile of Robert Mueller originally ran in CounterPunch on June 21, 2017.

Robert Mueller, the former FBI director named special counsel for the investigation into Russian interference in the presidential election, is depicted as an iconic G-man: serious, patrician, and totally incorruptible. But in reality, it’s a little different. As with FBI Agent Dale Cooper in the latest iteration of “Twin Peaks,” there is a Good Mueller and a Bad Mueller. We’ve heard a lot about the good-guy Mueller, but nothing much about his bad side. And there is a bad side–though it’s not the one that Trump supporters would have us think.

 

READING LIST

Political Science MPhil/PhD

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)

 

Dean Baker

The Importance of Kicking Up: Changing Market Structures So the Rich Don’t Get All the Money

Lawrence Wittner

What Democratic Socialism Is and Is Not

Thomas Knapp

Suppressing Discussion Doesn’t Solve the Problem. It is the Problem.

Stephen Cooper

“I’m a Nine-Star General Now”: an Interview with Black Uhuru’s Duckie Simpson

Andrew Moss

Immigration and the Democratic Hopefuls

Henry Giroux

The Ghost of Fascism in the Post-Truth Era

Gabriel Rockhill

Spectacular Violence as a Weapon of War Against the Yellow Vests

H. Bruce Franklin

Trump vs. McCain: an American Horror Story

Paul Street

A Pox on the Houses of Trump and McCain, Huxleyan Media, and the Myth of “The Vietnam War”

Andrew Levine

Why Not Impeach?

Bruce E. Levine

Right-Wing Psychiatry, Love-Me Liberals and the Anti-Authoritarian Left

Jeffrey St. Clair

Roaming Charges: Darn That (American) Dream

Charles Pierson

Rick Perry, the Saudis and a Dangerous Nuclear Deal

Moshe Adler

American Workers Should Want to Transfer Technology to China

Russia and the Democrats

by Rob Urie

Two years ago authors Jonathan Allen and Amie Parnes wrote in their book Shattered: Inside Hillary Clinton’s Doomed Campaign that within 24 hours of her 2016 electoral loss, Hillary Clinton’s senior campaign staff decided to blame the loss on Russian interference. Given the apparent source of the charge in opposition research funded by the Clinton campaign, the move seemed both desperate and pathetic— a thread for Clinton’s true believers to hang onto, an effort to keep campaign contributions rolling in and a ploy to cleave liberals from the left through red-baiting. More  https://www.counterpunch.org/2019/03/27/russia-and-the-democrats/

 

 

Jamie Dimon Laments the Plight of the Poor While His Bank Pays 0.02% on CDs

by Pam Martens - Russ Martens

JPMorgan Chase’s CEO, Jamie Dimon, gave a CNN interview last week in which he said that the U.S. economy is “fundamentally anti-poor.” Two weeks before that, Dimon boasted in an OpEd for CNN that was co-authored by his fellow Board Member, Mellody Hobson, that the bank was doing all kinds of wonderful things to address More  https://www.counterpunch.org/2019/03/27/jamie-dimon-laments-the-plight-of-the-poor-while-his-bank-pays-0-02-on-cds/

 

 

Ecological Civilization: Could China Become a Model for Saving the Earth?

by Evaggelos Vallianatos

Industrialized agriculture is threatening humanity with catastrophe. It feeds global warming and dissolves societies. In addition, its pesticides contaminate and poison drinking water and food.

 


RON PAUL.COM
http://www.ronpaul.com/contact/

Political Science MPhil/PhD

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)

 

YOUR NEWS WIRE
http://yournewswire.com/

The FBI kept vital evidence relating to pre-placed explosives at the World Trade Center on 9/11 hidden from Congress, a court has been told.

The Lawyer’s Committee for 9/11 Inquiry and Architects & Engineers for 9/11 Truth filed a complaint Monday against U.S. Attorney General William Barr and FBI Director Christopher Wray, claiming the Bureau failed in its federally mandated duty to access all the evidence available that previous 9/11 commissions may have missed. ?
>>>>>> https://newspunch.com/fbi-ommitting-evidence-pre-placed-explosives-911-report/

 

Monsanto Ordered to Pay $81 Million in Roundup Cancer Trial>>>>>> https://www.telesurenglish.net/news/Monsanto-Ordered-to-Pay-81-Million-in-Roundup-Cancer-Trial-20190327-0034.html


PROGRESSIVE SECULAR 
http://www.patheos.com/blogs/progressivesecularhumanist/

Republican Rep. Stephanie Borowicz is being denounced after delivering an offensive and disrespectful prayer immediately before the first Muslim woman was sworn into the Pennsylvania State House. Borowicz delivered the opening prayer for the Pennsylvania State House earlier this week, on the same day that the state’s first Muslim legislator, State Rep. Movita Johnson-Harrell, was officially sworn into office. The prayer was an offensive exercise in intolerance and religious bigotry. In her prayer Borowicz invoked the name of Christ 13… Read

 

STRATEGIC CULTURE
http://www.strategic-culture.org/

Globalism’s Last Disgrace: The Army vs. the Yellow Vests

The real fear for Macron is not a violent demonstration that ends with protestors shot and killed. No, the real fear is the protests that are peaceful.

There are few people in this world more odious than French President Emmanuel Macron after his behavior this week. I’m sure there are child molesters who are worse. But as a man who is pivotal in the future of hundreds of millions of people, his decision to order the French military to quell the Yellow Vests protests with live ammunition is simply vile.

Macron outed himself as the very symbol of what animates the globalist elite he represents. https://www.strategic-culture.org/news/2019/03/27/globalism-last-disgrace-army-vs-yellow-vests.html


SPUTNIK NEWS
http://sputniknews.com/


HUFFINGTON POST HOME
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/home/

Never Imagined A President Would Kick 'Allies In The Ass,' Says Former U.S. Commander

“When the president refers to the EU as an enemy of the United States, that’s a gift" to Russia and China, said retired Lt. Gen. Ben

 

WE ARE CHANGE 
http://wearechange.org/about/
MIDDLE EAST EYE
http://www.middleeasteye.net/Saudi's coalition in Yemen: Militias and foreign mercenaries backed by western firepower

Militia fighters from Darfur and Latin American mercenaries are among those fighting alongside professional soldiers from many Arab nations

MONDOWEISS
http://mondoweiss.net/about-mondoweiss

Democratic leaders’ use of AIPAC to bash Omar and ignore Netanyahu just gave progressive Dems a giant boost

Philip Weiss on March 27, 2019

 

The big story coming out of AIPAC is every one in the Democratic leadership dumping all over the first term Muslim congresswoman from Minnesota, Ilhan Omar, while having nothing to say about Benjamin Netanyahu. In the process they have clearly damaged their own standing inside the progressive wing of the party, including among liberal Zionist advocates. When House Majority leader Steny Hoyer said Omar should accuse him of dual loyalty for his support for Israel, he seemed to confirm what she had said.


MEDIA MATTERS
http://mediamatters.org/


ALMASDAR NEWS/THE ARAB SOURCE 
http://www.almasdarnews.com/

Political Science MPhil/PhD

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)

 

TRUE ACTIVIST
http://www.trueactivist.com/

According To The 2019 Healthiest Country Index, Spain Ranks As No.1 Healthiest Country In The World

Read More: http://www.trueactivist.com/according-to-the-2019-healthiest-country-index-spain-ranks-as-no-1-healthiest-country-in-the-world-t1/  http://www.trueactivist.com/according-to-the-2019-healthiest-country-index-spain-ranks-as-no-1-healthiest-country-in-the-world-t1/


IA CENTER
http://www.iacenter.org/

U.S. hands off! Venezuela fights for all Latin America / Ante nuevas amenazas norteamericanas, Venezuela lucha por la liberación de un continente


GLOBAL RESEARCH
http://www.globalresearch.ca/

 

Hillary to Deliver Syria to Jihadists?  http://www.globalresearch.ca/

 

According to Hillary Clinton’s foreign policy advisor, Jeremy Bash, if Clinton is elected she will order a “re-set” of US policy toward Syria to emphasize the “murderous” nature of the Assad regime. As the Telegraph reports, Hillary Clinton will breathe new life into the “Assad must go” camp. She will likely launch a full-scale US invasion of Syria.

Said Bash:

A Clinton administration will not shrink from making clear to the world exactly what the Assad regime is. It is a murderous regime that violates human rights; that has violated international law; used chemical weapons against his own people; has killed hundreds of thousands of people, including tens of thousands of children.

http://www.globalresearch.ca/

Judge Rules Trump Plans to Open Up Swathes of Arctic, Atlantic Oceans for Drilling IllegalBy Tom McKay, April 01, 2019

Unnecessary Expansions: The Australian War Memorial By Dr. Binoy Kampmark, April 01, 2019

Yemen By Daniel McAdams, April 01, 2019

Israeli Accountability Begins Now By Philip Giraldi, April 01, 2019

The New Arab OTAN – Serving Who? By Margherita Furlan, April 01, 2019

 

The New Arab OTAN – Serving Who?

  “Iran is the main threat in the Middle East, and confronting the Islamic Republic is the key to achieving peace in the entire region”. As American Secretary of State Mike Pompeo pronounced these words in Poland, on February 13, Iran was hit by a kamikaze attack: 42 Pasdaran dead in the Southeastern provinces of Sistan and Baluchistan. The attack was claimed by the Sunni jihadist group Jaish al-Adl, who decided to hit while the country celebrated the 40th anniversary of the Islamic Revolution. The event was met by the almost total silence of our own media. “It is no coincidence if Iran was hit by terror on the day the Warsaw circus begins”– tweeted Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad JavadZarif  –”especially when supporters of the same terrorists are applauding from the streets of Warsaw.”  https://www.globalresearch.ca/the-new-arab-otan-serving-who/5673258

 

Expected By Andrew Korybko, April 01, 2019

Sanctions By Dan Beeton, April 01, 2019

Health Ministry: “Army Killed 266 Palestinians in One Year”By IMEMC, April 01, 2019

Crimes By Prof. Marjorie Cohn, April 01, 2019

Syria — The West Destroyed Our Homes but Not Our DreamsBy Sumaya AlEssmael, March 31, 2019

Syria — The West Destroyed Our Homes but Not Our Dreams

Time before the war, Syria was a peaceful place where we used to live at peace. Peace meant to us life. But now we lost life since we lost peace. My daughter, that little girl at that time of peace had had a dream of being a famous person. War has destroyed our castle of dreams. We found ourselves living dead, terrorism pervaded every single aspect of our life. We started to struggle in order to keep breathing in such an ocean of killing everywhere.

 

https://www.globalresearch.ca/syria-west-destroyed-homes-not-dreams/5673158

UK Government Defends Arming Saudi Arabia: Secret Court Hearing. Are British Forces in Yemen?

he government refuses to confirm or deny the presence of British special forces in Yemen.

Its missions are exempt from freedom of information and even Parliament’s defence committee. 

 https://www.globalresearch.ca/government-defends-arming-saudi-arabia-secret-court-hearing/5674279

Venezuela Under Siege By Michael Welch and Julia Buxton, March 31, 2019

Turn By Peter Koenig, March 31, 2019

Selected Articles: NATO Expansion Could Trigger Nuclear War By Global Research News, March 31, 2019

Standards By James ONeill, March 31, 2019

Cyclone Idai Causes Devastation Compounding Economic Challenges in the Southern Africa Region By Abayomi Azikiwe, March 31, 2019

Weekend By IMEMC, March 31, 2019

Species By Center For Biological Diversity, March 30, 2019

Xi’s Visit Sets Tone for China-EU RelationsBy Liu Caiyu and Yang Sheng, March 30, 2019

UK MPs Reject May’s No-Brexit/Brexit Deal for the Third TimeBy Stephen Lendman, March 30, 2019

 

Saudis By Stephen Lendman, March 30, 2019 Saudi Crown Prince MBS Stripped of Some Powers?

Reports by London’s Guardian, Press TV, and other media suggesting it are unverified, the Guardian saying the following:

Mohammad bin Salman (MBS) “has not attended a series of high-profile ministerial and diplomatic meetings in Saudi Arabia over the last fortnight and is alleged to have been stripped of some of his financial and economic authority,” adding:

“The move to restrict, if only temporarily…understood to have been revealed to a group of senior ministers earlier last week by his father, King Salman.”

Press TV reported that MBS was “stripped of some of his powers and has not attended…recent weekly cabinet meetings and…high-profile talks with visiting dignitaries,” including Sergey Lavrov, confirmed by Russia’s Foreign Ministry, adding:

 

https://www.globalresearch.ca/saudi-crown-prince-stripped-some-powers/5671947

 

Workers’ Rights and Canada’s Auto Industry: GM Oshawa: Lowered Expectations, Unexplored OpportunitiesBy Prof. Sam Gindin, March 30, 2019

Video: “Dumb Bombs”, Indiscriminate Strikes and Civilian Casualties in Syrian War By South Front, March 30, 2019

Video: “Dumb Bombs”, Indiscriminate Strikes and Civilian Casualties in Syrian War

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A recent series of Russian strikes on positions of militant groups in the Syrian province of Idlib has once again caused a wave of mainstream media reports regarding civilian casualties caused by Russian bombings. According to “local activists” quoted by media, the Idlib strikes led to tens of civilian casualties. There are no MSM reports about casualties among members of militant groups or destruction of their infrastructure.

Since the very start of the Russian military operation in Syria, Russia has been under fire over its usage of unguided weapons – missiles and bombs – as a main mean of engagement. The key idea repeated by Western diplomats, military officials and media in various formats is the following:

While the US-led coalition carries out pinpoint strikes with precision weaponry, the Russian Aerospace Forces employ indiscriminate strikes with unguided bombs, which are often being dropped from high altitudes. https://www.globalresearch.ca/dumb-bombs-indiscriminate-strikes-civilian-casualties-syrian-war/5673098

 

Juan Guaidó Confesses Being Behind the Sabotage of Venezuela’s Electric System By Gustavo Villapol and VTV, March 30, 2019

‘We Are Running Concentration Camps’: Images from El Paso Stir Outrage over Migrant Treatment By Eoin Higgins, March 30, 2019

The BRICS New Development Bank: Corruption-riddled Development Finance By Prof. Patrick Bond, March 30, 2019

Neoliberals and Neocons Declare “All Options on the Table” in Venezuela By Kurt Nimmo, March 30, 2019

 

Syria: Is US Fighting ISIS or Liquidating Assets? By Tony Cartalucci, March 30, 2019

 Syria: Is US Fighting ISIS or Liquidating Assets?

 

That the “final stronghold” of the self-proclaimed Islamic State (ISIS) resides in US occupied territory in Syria says it all.

From US Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) memos dating back to 2012 noting efforts to create a “Salafist” [Islamic] “principality” [State] in eastern Syria precisely where ISIS rose and now clings to its “final stronghold,” to the obvious fact that ISIS’ fighting capacity was only possible through extensive state sponsorship – it was already clear that the US and its partners in regime change against Syria had been using terrorists including ISIS as proxy ground forces.

Now the US claims it has cornered and is on the verge of defeating ISIS – despite the terrorist group having been cleared out of virtually every other corner of the nation by Syrian, Russian, Iranian, and Hezbollah forces long ago.

In reality, the US is merely liquidating assets it had harbored, protected, armed, and funded throughout the 8 year proxy war until no longer politically feasible.  https://www.globalresearch.ca/syria-us-fighting-isis-liquidating-assets/5673120

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)

 

Angles of Tolerance: Yusuf Islam in Christchurch By Dr. Binoy Kampmark, March 30, 2019

Video: Houthis Kill or Injure 250 Saudi-backed Fighters, Capture 100 Positions in Large-scale Attack in Dhale By South Front, March 30, 2019

Video: Houthis Kill or Injure 250 Saudi-backed Fighters, Capture 100 Positions in Large-scale Attack in Dhale

 

The Houthis captured 100 positions in the central Yemeni province of Dhale from the Saudi-led coalition and its proxies during a recent large-scale operation, Brig. Gen. Yahya Sari , a spokesman of the pro-Houthis wing of the Yemeni Armed Forces, announced in the late hours of March 28.

“Our forces succeed in a special military operation on the front of Dhale … As a result, more than 100 military positions were secured, more than 250 enemy personnel were injured and killed, while dozens others surrendered themselves,” Brig. Gen. Yahya Sari said.

The Nasah mount was among the positions, which were captured by the Houthis in the course of the attack that lasted for five days https://www.globalresearch.ca/houthis-kill-injure-250-saudi-backed-fighters-capture-100-positions-large-scale-attack-dhale/5673132

 

Politics and International Studies Research Degrees (MPhilPhD)

 

Why Canada Should Get Out of NATO By Canadian Peace Congress, March 30, 2019

China-Italy Cooperation and the “Devil’s Alternative”By Francesco Maringiò, March 30, 2019

US Threatens Turkey over Russian S-400 Air Defence PurchaseBy Jordan Shilton, March 30, 2019

NATO’s Unrelenting Expansion Could Trigger a Major Nuclear War By Shane Quinn, March 30, 2019

Pentagon Audit: Evidence Proving $21 Trillion Unaccounted For – Opening Statement By David DeGraw, March 29, 2019

Report on Israeli Human Rights Violations in the Occupied Palestinian Territory (21 – 27 March 2019)By IMEMC, March 29, 2019

Gaza Freedom Flotilla Coalition: Shoulder to Shoulder with the Great Return March By Canadian Boat to Gaza, March 29, 2019

Palestinians Commemorate Land Day 2019. Gazans Protest against Israeli Aggression and Suffocating Blockade By Stephen Lendman, March 29, 2019

Brexit Has Ceased to be the “Will of the People”: Study By Jack Peat, March 29, 2019

Russia Officially Rubbished Alt-Media’s False Reports About a Venezuelan Base. Reality CheckBy Andrew Korybko, March 29, 2019

Trump Trades Arab Lives for Netanyahu Votes By Laila Ujayli, March 29, 2019

Annual Lobbying on “Pro-Israel”, A Major Force in US Foreign Affairs: Summary for 2018By Center for Responsive Politics, March 29, 2019

UK Members of Parliament “Demote” Prime Minister Theresa May By Stephen Lendman, March 29, 2019

The 1994 Rwandan Genocide: Jean Leonard Teganya, a Rwandan in Boston’s Federal CourtBy Aimable Mugara, March 29, 2019

 

Video: Lider-class Destroyer — A New Face of Russian Surface Fleet By South Front, March 29, 2019

Lebanon Decides to Confront Israel and the US in Shebaa, Kfarshouba and Syria By Elijah J. Magnier, March 29, 2019

March 29 – Brexit DayBy Julian Rose, March 29, 2019

Ambassador Jaafari Crushes Trump’s Tweet on Syria’s Golan, Flagrant Violation, Contempt for International LawBy Miri Wood, March 29, 2019

 

‘Every War Is a War Against Children’By Kathy Kelly, March 29, 2019

‘Every War Is a War Against Children’

We, in the United States, have yet to realize both the futility and immense consequences of war even as we develop, store, sell, and use hideous weapons. The number of children killed is rising.

***

At 9:30 in the morning of March 26, the start of the fifth year of the Saudi-led coalition war against Yemen, the entrance to a rural hospital in the northwest part of the country was teeming as patients waited to be seen and employees arrived at work. Suddenly, missiles from an airstrike hit the hospital, killing seven people, four of them children.

Jason Lee of Save the Children, told The New York Times that the Saudi-led coalition, now in its fifth year of waging war in Yemen, knew the coordinates of the hospital and should have been able to avoid the strike. He called what happened “a gross violation of humanitarian law.”

The day before, Save the Children reported that air raids carried out by the Saudi-led coalition have killed at least 226 Yemeni children and injured 217 more in just the last twelve months. “Of these children,” the report noted, “210 were inside or close to a house when their lives were torn apart by bombs that had been sold to the coalition by foreign governments.”  https://www.globalresearch.ca/every-war-war-against-children/5673041

 

 

Vatican Archives on Ustasha Ratlines to be OpenedBy Tanjug, March 29, 2019

Trump vs. Powell: How Independent Really Is the Fed? By Dr. Jack Rasmus, March 29, 2019

Syria’s Rukban Now Little More than a US-Controlled Concentration Camp – and the Pentagon Won’t Let Refugees Leave By Whitney Webb, March 29, 2019

Syria’s Rukban Now Little More than a US-Controlled Concentration Camp – and the Pentagon Won’t Let Refugees Leave

 

According to the Cambridge Dictionary, a concentration camp is defined as “a place where large numbers of people are kept as prisoners in extremely bad conditions, especially for political reasons.” It is undeniable that the Rukban camp fits this definition to the letter.

***

The United States military has rejected offers to resolve the growing humanitarian crisis in the Rukban refugee camp in Syria, which sits inside a 55 km zone occupied by the U.S. along the Syria-Jordan border. The U.S. has also refused to let any of the estimated 40,000 refugees — the majority of which are women and children — leave the camp voluntarily, even though children are dying in droves from lack of food, adequate shelter and medical care. The U.S. has also not provided humanitarian aid to the camp even though a U.S. military base is located just 20 km (12.4 miles) away. 

https://www.globalresearch.ca/syrias-rukban-us-controlled-concentration-camp-pentagon-wont-let-refugees-leave/5673032

EU’s Parliament Signs Off on Disastrous Internet Law: What Happens Next?By Danny O'Brien, March 29, 2019

Welcome to Hell: Peruvian Mining City of La RinconadaBy Andre Vltchek, March 29, 2019

NATO’s Extensive War Crimes against Yugoslavia: “World of Equals” Calls NATO to AccountBy Tiphaine Dickson and The Taylor Report, March 29, 2019

The Logic of Annexation: Israel and the Golan Heights

 

 

 

drdej197
Soup apology if I am not allowed to show links related to Twitter if not please send message will be remove them immediately. 
drdej197

Notes on UK Democracy

To Mini Tech Tyrant Quora -Mountain View (Mini Thought Police Guard Dog- Mountain View, California AND The Quora community Jimmy Wales, Richard A. Muller, Justin Trudeau, Barack Obama, Hillary Clinton, Adrián Lamo)/ Big Tech Tyrants FB-Twitter ..

I am fed up with YOUR constant bullying and harassment, you Tech Tyrants at Facebook, Twitter, Mini Tech Tyrant Quora -Mountain View ..the Thought Police Guard Dogs-Tech Tyrants (TPGDTT)

I asked the question in Quora ..Why is Churchill so glorified in the west, in spite of being a racist man?

And you are threatening me to suspend me for good- like FB/TWITTER Shame Sham Democracy

 

 

Patrice Lumumba

Letter from Thysville Prison to Mrs. Lumumba

 

The day will come when history will speak. But it will not be the history which will be taught in Brussels, Paris, Washington or the United Nations.

 

It will be the history which will be taught in the countries which have won freedom from colonialism and its puppets.

Africa will write its own history and in both north and south it will be a history of glory and dignity.

Do not weep for me. I know that my tormented country will be able to defend its freedom and its independence.

George Orwell quotes about truth

’Intellectual honesty is a crime in any totalitarian country; but even in England it is not exactly profitable to speak and write the truth.’

Ex-UN human rights expert AlfreddeZayas: "We are swimming in an ocean of lies. 

16 years since the Anglo-American destruction of Iraq. Millions of people killed and displaced by the British and US militaries.

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1108486109519101954

Saudi Arabia's National Guard, whose role is to defend the House of Saud from a coup d'état, have been trained by Britain for over 50 years. Saudi Arabia was created by the British & the monarchy is kept in power by the US & Britain.

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1063632263479480321

Contrary to the myth perpetuated in Britain, India's fight for independence was violent. More than 10 million Indians were killed by the British in the years following the 1857 uprising alone. Heroes like Bhagat Singh, Surya Sen & Udham Singh all fought to the death for freedom.

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1107860871311708160

In the month of March 1769, Britain set out to destroy India's textile industry. It was completely annihilated because it was a competitor to British business. The export markets for textiles were cut off and extortionate duties were placed on the little industry that survived.

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1107167802971115526

Colonial settler states USA, Canada, Australia were all founded on the genocide of the indigenous people. In the case of Australia, Aboriginal people were classed as animals. To this day they suffer under the Anglo-Saxon culture imposed on their land which is rooted in racialism.

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1107140751438368768

Remembering 19-year-old Greek Cypriot freedom fighter Evagoras Pallikarides who was hanged by the British in March 1957 for resisting British colonialism.

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1106810259614650375

A reminder that the Bloody Sunday massacre saw British soldiers fire on a civil rights march resulting in the death of 14 Irish people. 1 soldier is set to face prosecution while 16 are off the hook. The lives of Irish and other colonised people are worth nothing to the British.

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1106154959127613441

The war on Yemen from the very start was a British and American one. Yet Britain mitigates and hides its true role by using its proxy Saudi Arabia.

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1102630135751196672

100 years since the Jallianwala Bagh massacre in India this year. 1500 people shot dead on the orders of Reginald Dyer. He was given a heroes welcome when he returned to London, £1,000,000 and presented with a sword inscribed with the motto “the saviour of Punjab”.

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1102596434635964416

On this day in 1959 the Hola massacre took place in Kenya. 11 people were clubbed to death inside Britain’s concentration camps inside the country. The British ran forced labour projects in Kenya throughout the 1950s.

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1102328758613221377

Correct to expose how British charities are part and parcel of imperialist order. But not to forget David Lammy voted to wage war on Iraq. He voted against any investigations into Britain’s war on Iraq in the years that followed and for a no-fly-zone in Libya in 2011.

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1101547716860092416

1090 Kenyans were hanged by Britain for opposing colonial rule which stripped the most fertile land from them. It was given to white settlers.

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1098271363226394627

Britain’s Defence Secretary @GavinWilliamson threatened to send an aircraft carrier to the South China Sea to make Beijing “pay dearly” for its “aggressive conduct”.

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1098203486448205824

No one wants to talk about Britain’s collusion with terrorists to travel to Libya in 2011 & then Syria after. It was only briefly touched on when one of these terrorists that had previously been facilitated by the Brit state went on to do a suicide bombing at a kids pop concert.

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1097950279792758789

Remembering Kenyan Dedan Kimathi who was executed by the British on this day in 1957. He led the KLFA (Mau Mau) revolution against the brutal British occupation of his country. "I don’t lead terrorists. I lead Africans who want their self-government and land.”

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1097394457287233536

The destruction of Libya began 8 years ago today. The most prosperous African nation was turned over the NATO backed terrorists. Muammar al-Gaddafi was lynched by them and his corpse was splashed on western newspapers hailing it as a victory. Britain’s PM called it “liberation”.

9:33 am - 17 Feb 2019

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1097187267842588672

There isn't any nuance to be had on the Churchill 'hero or villain' debate. His many crimes were not expiated for his actions in WW2. He didn’t fight fascism he fought to try and save the British Empire.

6:12 am - 16 Feb 2019

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1096774281894215681

Remembering Irish human rights lawyer Pat Finucane who was murdered in February 1989 by a loyalist death squad in collusion with the British state. He was shot fourteen times in front of his family whilst eating a meal.

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1096723760315539461

For the attention of @Jacob_Rees_Mogg

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1096701235871272960

The forgotten concentration camps in South Africa where the British sent black people during the Boer War. A minimum of 20,000 people died.

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1096698641564270594

As the US, Britain, France, Spain, et al, try to lay the ground for conflict with Venezuela, claiming they want to 'bring democracy', let's remember this day 16 years ago when the people of Iraq were their target.

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1092126009988694016

Churchill is not a uniquely villainous Brit PM. Lloyd George partitioned Ireland, Attlee used chemical weapons on Malaya, Wilson’s war on Biafra, Thatcher’s war on Ireland, Blair’s genocide in Iraq, Cameron’s destruction of Libya & war on Syria, May’s starving of Yemen...

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1090280823079743489

Every couple of months for the last few years the debate on Churchill surfaces in Britain. Put this to bed once and for all; he was a war criminal @gmb @piersmorgan

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1090122965671440384

How was Churchill a white supremacist @piersmorgan asks... He literally suggested the motto “Keep England White” in response to migration from the Caribbean.

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1089958339411406849

The British tried to wipe out the Aboriginal people and today it's a cause of celebration for many #AustraliaDay #InvasionDay

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1089227031819231234

"I do not admit for instance, that a great wrong has been done to the Red Indians of America or the black people of Australia. A stronger race, a higher-grade race, a more worldly wise race to put it that way, has come in and taken their place.” - Churchill #AustraliaDay

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1089218726434664448

The annual “Australia Day” is the celebration of the arrival of British colonialism on the continent which was declared “terra nullius” meaning nobodies land by the Brits. Aboriginal people were massacred wholesale. Until the 1960s they were classed as animals.

2:16 am - 26 Jan 2019

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1089104804725567488

When Tony Blair, who killed and displaced millions in Iraq, told Venezuela "to abide by the rules", Hugo Chávez told him to "go right to hell".

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1088360518639894528

Operation Legacy was a programme launched by Britain to destroy thousands of records detailing colonial crimes. In the 21st century documents continue to be “lost”. It has emerged this week the Brits have destroyed files relating to the war on the Tamil people in Sri Lanka.

12:35 pm - 22 Jan 2019

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1087810916249419778

London is littered with statues honouring imperialist war criminals. Churchill (starved 4 million to death), Lloyd George (partitioned Ireland), Robert Clive (looted India), Bomber Harris (spoke of his enjoyment bombing civilians), Kitchener (concentration camps).

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1087662465213698048

The war on Yemen is not “Saudi-led” as much of the western media & politicos suggest. It has from day one been a British and US led war. Saudi Arabia are directed and propped by the west.

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1087405175822782465

The USA was built on the British Empire’s notion of the ‘natural superiority’ of the Anglo-Saxon. The Founding Fathers were of British ancestry and continued the genocidal work of the Anglos after 1776 against the Native American peoples #MAGA

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1086938747315339264

Britain has never left any part of the world they colonised without force. Contrary to the myth perpetrated India’s fight for freedom was violent not peaceful. And the same goes for lands occupied today by the Brits. “Ireland unfree will never be at peace” - Pádraic Pearse

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1086744804157997056

Patrice Lumumba was assassinated on this day in 1961. A British peer claimed a few years ago that he was murdered by British intelligence. One of many African leaders put to death by the Brits, French and Yanks for putting their people first.

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1085838962105729025

The destruction of Iraq and Libya were not ‘disasters’ for the British and Americans. They perfected how to destroy nations and seek to do the same to any who refuse to dance to their tune. The US and Britain’s war on Yemen is a continuation of this.

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1078148495935180800

25 Dec 1831, Christmas Uprising, Jamaica: 60,000 enslaved Africans led by Samuel Sharpe resist the British who responded by executing hundreds.

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1077686265200422912

On average 130 children are dying a day in Yemen because of the British and American led war via their Saudi puppet.

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1075113331726409729

Pitchcapping was a torture method used by the British on Irish people. Hot tar would be poured into a cap and then placed on the head. It would then be rapidly ripped off.

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1074109941642944512

A photograph of a British Army instructor training Saudi Arabian soldiers to fight in Yemen emerged late last year. Britain has led the war on Yemen from the very beginning.

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1073756939589431296

British soldiers perpetrated the Batang Kali massacre in Malaya on this day in 1948. They shot 24 people dead and went on to set fire to their village. In 2015 the British government decided there would be no inquiry into the massacre as it happened “too long ago”.

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1072801460298113025

Brit MP @patel4witham has suggested Ireland should be threatened with food shortages to get a better Brexit deal. It just shows how out of touch, nasty and evil those are that walk in Britain’s corridors of power. In mid 1800s the Brits tried to wipe out the Irish by starvation.

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1071031728481976320

George Bush Snr. guilty of war crimes in Iraq, Nicaragua, El Salvador and Panama was knighted by Britain's queen

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1068852848920805376

Remember Mark Thatcher, son of Margaret Thatcher, was caught funding a coup attempt in Equatorial Guinea (Africa's 3rd largest oil producer) in 2004. His punishment? A fine and four year suspended prison sentence.

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1068835359801450498

The BBC’s very purpose is to act as a propaganda outfit. From its inception it has existed to work in the interest of the British state. Most recently it promoted war on Libya & Syria and has led the fearmongering & misinformation on Scottish independence since 2014 #VicarGate

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1068360710504284161

The Zong massacre was carried out on this day in 1781 by the crew of a British slave ship who threw 133 Africans overboard into the sea to drown so they could cash in on the insurance of those enslaved.

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1068117868888371202

For years the war on Yemen was ignored by western media, organisations and the anti-war movement. They still to this day frame the war on Yemen as Saudi-led. Deliberately diminishing the true role of the British and Americans who are behind the destruction of Yemen.

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1067916982572539904

Britain set to put another war criminal on its currency. Thatcher waged war on Ireland, sent the SAS to train Pol Pot forces, backed the Mujahideen in Afghanistan and hailed them as freedom fighters whilst she branded the ANC “terrorists”.

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1067126754316300289

Remembering Harry and Patrick Loughnane who were kidnapped, tortured and then murdered by British forces on this day in 1920 in Ireland. Grenades were detonated in their mouths and their bodies burned.

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1067118126565859328

This is British and American led. Britain has a long track record of using starvation as a weapon (Ireland, India, Malaya, Biafra) and continues to use it today against men, women and children in Yemen.

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1066046089571311616

The British Museum has no right to any stolen artefact. The entire building is packed with looted treasures. It is time for it all to be returned. No compromise needed.

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1065751492202819584

Clement Attlee carpet bombed Malaya with Agent Orange, sent warships to Iran when they nationalised their oil, oversaw the ethnic cleansing of 400,000 Palestinians, partitioned India resulting in millions of deaths & waged war on Korea with the US.

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1064968023587590149

 

India had more than 20% of the worlds GDP before Britain colonised. By the time the Brits left it was less than 4%.

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1063286037823348738

The Rawalpindi experiments saw the British send hundreds of Indian soldiers into gas chambers and test mustard gas on them to find out if it inflicted greater damage on non-white skin.

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1061663859113639937

In Yemen in Britain has waged successive campaigns. Much like they did in 1962 the British are using Saudi Arabia as their proxy. Today millions are being starved. British soldiers have been training Saudi forces & telling them where to drop the bombs that Britain has sold them.

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1060935088265928704

The British Army’s war on Syria has seen them facilitate and work alongside what the BBC termed “moderate rebels”. In 2012, British special forces trained “rebels” in Jordan with the express intention of them going to Syria.

https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits/status/1060934697872711680

ALL IN 1 https://twitter.com/crimesofbrits?ref_src=twsrc%5Egoogle%7Ctwcamp%5Eserp%7Ctwgr%5Eauthor

 

 

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PART 3

American Indian Holocaust
In the past, the main thrust of the Holocaust/Genocide Project's magazine, An End To Intolerance, has been the genocides that occurred in history and outside of the United States. Still, what we mustn't forget is that mass killing of Native Americans occurred in our own country. As a result, bigotry and racial discrimination still exist. 
http://rationalwiki.org/wiki/American_Indian_Holocaust

Fact-Finding Mission  PhD Research

 

Numerous atrocities against Native Americans span the hundreds of years from the first arrival of European explorers to the modern era under a wide range of circumstances. Today there are over 500 Native American tribes in the United States, each with a distinct culture, way of life and history. Even today, Native Americans face large challenges to cope with the disadvantages history has left them and ongoing cases of discrimination.

  • 10 million+ Estimated number of Native Americans living in land that is now the United States when European explorers first arrived in the 15th century

  • Less than 300,000 Estimated number of Native Americans living in the United States around 1900

  • 5.2 million identified as American Indian or Alaska Native in the 2010 census

 

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  • We believe we must fulfill the promise the world made following the Holocaust: “Never Again!”

  • Numerous atrocities against Native Americans span the hundreds of years from the first arrival of European explorers to the modern era under a wide range of circumstances. Today there are over 500 Native American tribes in the United States, each with a distinct culture, way of life and history. Even today, Native Americans face large challenges to cope with the disadvantages history has left them and ongoing cases of discrimination.

  • 10 million+ Estimated number of Native Americans living in land that is now the United States when European explorers first arrived in the 15th century

  • Less than 300,000 Estimated number of Native Americans living in the United States around 1900

  • 5.2 million identified as American Indian or Alaska Native in the 2010 census

  • <!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1027" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="Massacre-of-Indian-women-and-children-in-Idaho-Frank-Leslie-illustrated" style="'width:196.8pt;height:141pt'" o:bordertopcolor="this" o:borderleftcolor="this" o:borderbottomcolor="this" o:borderrightcolor="this" o:button="t"> <v:imagedata src="file:///C:\Users\user\AppData\Local\Temp\msohtmlclip1\01\clip_image003.jpg" o:href="http://endgenocide.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/2015/01/Massacre-of-Indian-women-and-children-in-Idaho-Frank-Leslie-illustrated.jpg"/> <w:bordertop type="single" width="4"/> <w:borderleft type="single" width="4"/> <w:borderbottom type="single" width="4"/> <w:borderright type="single" width="4"/> </v:shape><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]-->Massacre-of-Indian-women-and-children-in-Idaho-Frank-Leslie-illustrated<!--[endif]-->

  • A History of Atrocities

  • An estimated 12,000 years ago, a mass migration of nomadic peoples, traveled across a land bridge that connected Asia to what is now Alaska. These people would come to be called Native Americans, numbering over 50 million, and settling from the top of North America to the bottom of South America.

  • By the time Christopher Columbus reached the Caribbean in 1492, historians estimate that there were 10 million indigenous peoples living in U.S. territory. But by 1900, the number had reduced to less than 300,000.

  • European expansion into North America – whether to find gold, escape religious persecution or start a new life – led to the destruction of Native American livelihoods. Disease was a major killer, followed by malnutrition. Colonists in search of gold staged violent ambushes on tribal villages, fueling animosity with Natives. Several wars broke out between tribes and American settlers which led to large death tolls, land dispossession, oppression and blatant racism.

  • Unlike the U.S. Civil Rights Movement in the 1960’s, which led to blanket legal reform, Native Americans gained civil and legal rights piece by piece. In 1924, the U.S. Congress passed the Indian Citizenship Act, giving Native Americans a ‘dual citizenship’ – they were citizens of their sovereign native land as well as the United States. Native Americans gained uniform voting rights in the Voting Rights Act of 1965. But it wasn’t until 1968, when the Indian Civil Rights Act was passed, that Natives gained the right to free speech, the right to a jury and protection from unreasonable search and seizure.

  • Colonization

  • While the Native Americans’ history began thousands of years ago, their European encounter started with one man. Determined to find a direct route from Europe to Asia, Christopher Columbus stumbled on the Americas in 1492.

  • <!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1028" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="Christopher_Columbus" style="'width:150pt; " height:84.6pt' o:bordertopcolor="this" o:borderleftcolor="this" o:borderbottomcolor="this" o:borderrightcolor="this" o:button="t"> <v:imagedata src="file:///C:\Users\user\AppData\Local\Temp\msohtmlclip1\01\clip_image005.jpg" o:href="http://endgenocide.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/2015/01/Christopher_Columbus-1024x576.jpg"/> <w:bordertop type="single" width="4"/> <w:borderleft type="single" width="4"/> <w:borderbottom type="single" width="4"/> <w:borderright type="single" width="4"/> </v:shape><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]-->Christopher_Columbus<!--[endif]-->

  • Columbus called the first people he met ‘Indians’ because he assumed he had been sailing in the Indian Ocean. But in actuality, this land had already been discovered – millions of Natives had occupied the Western Hemisphere for hundreds of years.

  • Ultimately, while Columbus is remembered as a daring adventurer, he was also a perpetrator of atrocities and his legacy is viewed as the starting point that sparked hundreds of years of exploration and exploitation of the Americas.

  • Disease

  • The most significant reason for Natives decline was disease – an invisible killer that wiped out an estimated 90% of the population. Unlike the Europeans and Asians, whose lifestyle had a long history of sharing close quarters with domesticated animals, Native Americans were not immune to pathogens spread by domesticated cows, pigs, sheep, goats, and horses. As a result, millions were killed by measles, influenza, whooping cough, diphtheria, typhus, bubonic plague, cholera, scarlet fever and syphilis.

  • Spreading disease was not always intentional on the part of the colonists. But there were a few instances that confirm Europeans’ attempt to exterminate natives. In 1763, a particularly serious uprising threatened British garrisons in Pennsylvania. Worried about limited resources, and driven by atrocities committed by some Native Americans , Sir Jeffrey Amherst, commander-in-chief of British forces in North America, wrote to Colonel Henry Bouquet at Fort Pitt:

  • “You will do well to try to inoculate the Indians [with smallpox] by means of blankets, as well as to try every other method, that can serve to extirpate this execrable race.”

  • Consequently, settlers spread smallpox to the Native Americans by distributing blankets previously owned by contagious patients.

  • Violent Conflicts

  • <!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1029" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="scalping-harm-inciting" style="'width:138pt;height:97.8pt'" o:bordertopcolor="this" o:borderleftcolor="this" o:borderbottomcolor="this" o:borderrightcolor="this" o:button="t"> <v:imagedata src="file:///C:\Users\user\AppData\Local\Temp\msohtmlclip1\01\clip_image007.png" o:href="http://endgenocide.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/2015/01/scalping-harm-inciting-300x213.gif"/> <w:bordertop type="single" width="4"/> <w:borderleft type="single" width="4"/> <w:borderbottom type="single" width="4"/> <w:borderright type="single" width="4"/> </v:shape><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]-->scalping-harm-inciting<!--[endif]-->

  • Cultural clashes between European settlers and Natives lasted for over four hundred years – small battles, large scale wars and forced labor systems on large estates, also known as encomiendas – took a large toll on the Native population.

  • Throughout the Northeast, proclamations to create ‘redskins’, or scalps of Native Americans, were common during war and peace times. According to the 1775 Phips Proclamation in Massachusetts, King George II of Britain called for “subjects to embrace all opportunities of pursuing, captivating, killing and destroying all and every of the aforesaid Indians.”

  • Colonists were paid for each Penobscot Native they killed – fifty pounds for adult male scalps, twenty-five for adult female scalps, and twenty for scalps of boys and girls under age twelve. These proclamations explicitly display the settlers’ “intent to kill”, a major indicator of genocidal acts.

  • U.S. History of Atrocities

  • After the American Revolution, many Native American lives were already lost to disease and displacement. In 1830, the federal Indian Removal Act called for the removal of the ‘Five Civilized Tribes’ – the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek and Seminole. Between 1830 and 1838, federal officials working on behalf of white cotton growers forced nearly 100,000 Indians out of their homeland. The dangerous journey from the southern states to “Indian Territory” in current Oklahoma is referred to as the Trail of Tears in which 4,000 Cherokee people died of cold, hunger, and disease.

  • As the United States expanded westward, violent conflicts over territory multiplied. In 1784, one British traveler noted:

  • “White Americans have the most rancorous antipathy to the whole race of Indians; and nothing is more common than to hear them talk of extirpating them totally from the face of the earth, men, women, and children.”

  • In particular, the 1848 California gold rush caused 300,000 people to migrate to San Francisco from the East Coast and South America. Historians believe that California was once the most densely and diversely populated area for Native Americans in U.S. territory; however, the gold rush had massive implications for Native American livelihoods. Toxic chemicals and gravel ruined traditional Native hunting and agricultural practices, resulting in starvation for many Natives.

  • Further, in 1850, the California state government passed the Act for the Government and Protection of Indians that addressed the punishment and protection of Native Americans, and helped to facilitate the removal of their culture and land. It also legalized slavery and was referenced for the buying and selling of Native children.

  • “A war of extermination will continue to be waged between the two races until the Indian race becomes extinct.”
    – California Governor Peter H. Burnett, 1851 

  • In 1890, Wounded Knee, located on the Pine Ridge Reservation in North Dakota, government officials believed chief Sitting Bull was a Ghost Dancer, someone who rejects “the ways of the white man” and believes that the gods will create a new world without non-believers. In the process of arresting Sitting Bull, federal officials actually ended up killing him, causing a massive rebellion that led to the deaths of over 150 Natives in Pine Ridge.

  • Modern Atrocities

  • Since the early 1900’s, advancements in Native American rights have been slow and piece-meal. At the turn of century, the Supreme Court ruled that the U.S. federal government has the right to overturn all Cherokee laws in the precedent-setting decision Cherokee Nation v. Hitchcock.

  • But, in 1928, the Brookings Institute released the ‘Meriam Report’, which was one of the first in-depth analyses of reservation living conditions. The report went on to influence policy initiatives which improved healthcare, education, and land rights for Native Americans. This was a step forward for the protection of a minority who was still without voting rights.

  • In 1949, however, the U.S. government took a step back towards 19th century bigotry, as the Hoover Commission urged the assimilation of the Natives,

  • “The basis for historic Indian culture has been swept away. Traditional tribal organization was smashed a generation ago .… Assimilation must be the dominant goal of public policy.”

  • One year later, using the same post-war idea that prevented “Little Tokyos” in the U.S., the Commissioner of Indian Affairs began to implement ‘withdrawal planning’, or the termination and relocation of thousands of Natives to cities.

  • In 1978, Congress passed the Indian Child Welfare Act which protects Native American children and the custody of their parents. Controversy has surrounded cases where state officials forcibly removed children from Native American families.

  • In Maine, the Maine Truth and Reconciliation Committee, for example, seeks to uncover and acknowledge the truth about what happened to Wabanaki children and families involved with the Maine child welfare system. These forcible removals are still happening today.

  • South Dakota continues to remove children at a rate higher than the vast majority of other states in the country.

  • Conclusion

  • For hundreds of years a mixture of colonial conflict, disease, specific atrocities and policies of discrimination has devastated the Native American population. In the course of this time, it is estimated that over nine million Natives died from violent conflict or disease. For too long this history has been under-recognized and too little discussed.

 

http://endgenocide.org/learn/past-genocides/native-americans/

Fact-Finding Mission  PhD Research

 

The Slaughter of Native Americans Was The U.S.’s Original Stand Your Ground
http://www.politicususa.com/2012/03/24/native-american-crisis.html

 

SLAVERY IN AMERICA
http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/slavery
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavery_in_the_United_States
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Facts about the Slave Trade and Slavery

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http://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/slavery-and-anti-slavery/resources/facts-about-slave-trade-and-slavery
Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abu_Ghraib_torture_and_prisoner_abuse

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Torture at Abu Ghraib
CIA with Saudi, Qatari ....Created ISIL/Takfiri Terrorist to disrupt Islamic Awakening

The ISIS Islamic Terrorists are Supported by the US, Israel and Saudi Arabia

Who’s Really Pulling the Strings?

The Times of Israel reported Wednesday:

A Free Syrian Army commander, arrested last month by the Islamist militia Al-Nusra Front, told his captors he collaborated with Israel in return for medical and military support, in a video released this week.Read more: Syrian rebel commander says he collaborated with Israel.

In a video uploaded to YouTube Monday … Sharif As-Safouri, the commander of the Free Syrian Army’s Al-Haramein Battalion, admitted to having entered Israel five times to meet with Israeli officers who later provided him with Soviet anti-tank weapons and light arms. Safouri was abducted by the al-Qaeda-affiliated Al-Nusra Front in the Quneitra area, near the Israeli border, on July 22.

“The [opposition] factions would receive support and send the injured in [to Israel] on condition that the Israeli fence area is secured. No person was allowed to come near the fence without prior coordination with Israel authorities,” Safouri said in the video.

***

In the edited confession video, in which Safouri seems physically unharmed, he says that at first he met with an Israeli officer named Ashraf at the border and was given an Israeli cellular phone. He later met with another officer named Younis and with the two men’s commander, Abu Daoud. In total, Safouri said he entered Israel five times for meetings that took place in Tiberias.

Following the meetings, Israel began providing Safouri and his men with “basic medical support and clothes” as well as weapons, which included 30 Russian [rifles], 10 RPG launchers with 47 rockets, and 48,000 5.56 millimeter bullets.

Also on Wednesday, the Jewish Telegraphic Agency – a 97-year old Jewish wire servicereported:

A senior employee of the Dutch Justice Ministry said the jihadist group ISIS was created by Zionists seeking to give Islam a bad reputation.

Yasmina Haifi, a project leader at the ministry’s National Cyber Security Center, made the assertion Wednesday on Twitter, the De Telegraaf daily reported.

“ISIS has nothing to do with Islam. It’s part of a plan by Zionists who are deliberately trying to blacken Islam’s name,” wrote Haifi ….

In March, Haaretz reported:

The Syrian opposition is willing to give up claims to the Golan Heights in return for cash and Israeli military aid against President Bashar Assad, a top opposition official told Al Arab newspaper, according to a report in Al Alam.

***

The Western-backed militant groups want Israel to enforce a no-fly zone over parts of southern Syria to protect rebel bases from air strikes by Assad’s forces, according to the report.

World Net Daily reports that the U.S. trained Islamic jihadis – who would later join ISIS – in Jordan.

The Jerusalem Post reports that an ISIS fighter says that Turkey funds the terrorist group. Turkey is a member of NATO and – at least until very recently – a close U.S. ally.

Wealthy donors in U.S. allies Kuwait and Qatar back ISIS, and Western intelligence officials say that those governments must be approving the support.

A former high-level Al Qaeda commander has repeatedly alleged that ISIS works for the CIA.

In June, investment adviser Jim Willie alleged:

The [Isis] troops that are working there [in Syria and Iraq] are Langley [i.e. CIA] troops. They’re trained, funded, and armed by Langley.

What I’m hearing… the U.S. military (Pentagon regulars), and you have to be careful when you refer to U.S. military anymore. What kind of U.S. military? Is it the Pentagon U.S. Army, or is it the Langley military, which has unmarked uniforms and 10′s of thousands of mercenaries?

They’re about to encounter each other in Iraq. The U.S. military Pentagon regulars evacuated Iraq, and what filled the vacuum was the Langley mercenaries, trained for Syria, that migrated South and announced their new agenda.

If and when the Pentagon regulars encounter the Langley mercenaries in Iraq, Obama’s going to get a house call, because U.S. military will be fighting U.S. military. Pentagon vs. Langley.

While we don’t know which of the above-described allegations are true, two things are certain:

<!--[if !supportLists]-->§  <!--[endif]-->The U.S. armed Islamic jihadis in Syria, and their weapons ended up in the hands of ISIS; and

<!--[if !supportLists]-->§  <!--[endif]-->Close allies of the U.S. have supported and trained the ISIS terrorists

Why would the U.S. and its allies back ISIS, when they are barbarian Islamic terrorists?  Well – assuming it’s true – oil and gas could be the explanation.

After all, there is evidence that the U.S. and her allies have wanted to break up the nations of Iraq and Syria for decades.  And ISIS has done so.

In any event – whether or not it’s true of ISIS – it’s well-documented that the U.S., Saudis and Israelis have been backing the world’s most dangerous and radical Muslim terrorists for decades. And see this.

And anyone who looks at the battle against ISIS as a religious war is being played.

Israel Supports Islamic Terrorists

The original source of this article is Washington's Blog

Copyright © Washington's Blog, Washington's Blog, 2015


http://www.globalresearch.ca/the-isis-islamic-terrorists-are-supported-by-the-us-israel-and-saudi-arabia/5396171


http://www.newsweek.com/israeli-saudi-american-alliance-against-iran-71781
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f7NsXFnzJGw&amp;feature=share
2012 Classified U.S. Report: ISIS Must Rise To Power - See more

2012 Classified U.S. Report: ISIS Must Rise To Power

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Conservative government watchdog Judicial Watch have published formerly classified documents from the U.S. Department of Defence which reveals the agencies earlier views on ISIS, namely that they were a desirable presence in Eastern Syria in 2012 and that they should be “supported” in order to isolate the Syrian regime.  

Levantreport.com reports:

Astoundingly, the newly declassified report states that for “THE WEST, GULF COUNTRIES, AND TURKEY [WHO] SUPPORT THE [SYRIAN] OPPOSITION… THERE IS THE POSSIBILITY OF ESTABLISHING A DECLARED OR UNDECLARED SALAFIST PRINCIPALITY IN EASTERN SYRIA (HASAKA AND DER ZOR), AND THIS IS EXACTLY WHAT THE SUPPORTING POWERS TO THE OPPOSITION WANT, IN ORDER TO ISOLATE THE SYRIAN REGIME…”.

The DIA report, formerly classified “SECRET//NOFORN” and dated August 12, 2012, was circulated widely among various government agencies, including CENTCOM, the CIA, FBI, DHS, NGA, State Dept., and many others.

The document shows that as early as 2012, U.S. intelligence predicted the rise of the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL or ISIS), but instead of clearly delineating the group as an enemy, the report envisions the terror group as a U.S. strategic asset.

While a number of analysts and journalists have documented long ago the role of western intelligence agencies in the formation and training of the armed opposition in Syria, this is the highest level internal U.S. intelligence confirmation of the theory that western governments fundamentally see ISIS as their own tool for regime change in Syria. The document matter-of-factly states just that scenario.

Forensic evidence, video evidence, as well as recent admissions of high-level officials involved (see former Ambassador to Syria Robert Ford’s admissions here and here), have since proven the State Department and CIA’s material support of ISIS terrorists on the Syrian battlefield going back to at least 2012 and 2013 (for a clear example of “forensic evidence”: see UK-based Conflict Armament Research’s report which traced the origins of Croatian anti-tank rockets recovered from ISIS fighters back to a Saudi/CIA joint program via identifiable serial numbers).

The newly released DIA report makes the following summary points concerning “ISI” (in 2012 “Islamic State in Iraq,”) and the soon to emerge ISIS:

<!--[if !supportLists]-->§  <!--[endif]-->Al-Qaeda drives the opposition in Syria

<!--[if !supportLists]-->§  <!--[endif]-->The West identifies with the opposition

<!--[if !supportLists]-->§  <!--[endif]-->The establishment of a nascent Islamic State became a reality only with the rise of the Syrian insurgency (there is no mention of U.S. troop withdrawal from Iraq as a catalyst for Islamic State’s rise, which is the contention of innumerable politicians and pundits; see section 4.D. below)

<!--[if !supportLists]-->§  <!--[endif]-->The establishment of a “Salafist Principality” in Eastern Syria is “exactly” what the external powers supporting the opposition want (identified as “the West, Gulf Countries, and Turkey”) in order to weaken the Assad government

<!--[if !supportLists]-->§  <!--[endif]-->“Safe havens” are suggested in areas conquered by Islamic insurgents along the lines of the Libyan model (which translates to so-called no-fly zones as a first act of ‘humanitarian war’; see 7.B.)

<!--[if !supportLists]-->§  <!--[endif]-->Iraq is identified with “Shia expansion” (8.C)

<!--[if !supportLists]-->§  <!--[endif]-->A Sunni “Islamic State” could be devastating to “unifying Iraq” and could lead to “the renewing facilitation of terrorist elements from all over the Arab world entering into Iraqi Arena.” (see last non-redacted line in full PDF view.)


The following is excerpted from the seven page DIA declassified report:

R 050839Z AUG 12

THE GENERAL SITUATION:
A. INTERNALLY, EVENTS ARE TAKING A CLEAR SECTARIAN DIRECTION.
B. THE SALAFIST [sic], THE MUSLIM BROTHERHOOD, AND AQI ARE THE MAJOR FORCES DRIVING THE INSURGENCY IN SYRIA.
C. THE WEST, GULF COUNTRIES, AND TURKEY SUPPORT THE OPPOSITION; WHILE RUSSIA, CHINA AND IRAN SUPPORT THE REGIME.

3. (C) Al QAEDA – IRAQ (AQI):… B. AQI SUPPORTED THE SYRIAN OPPOSITION FROM THE BEGINNING, BOTH IDEOLOGICALLY AND THROUGH THE MEDIA…

4.D. THERE WAS A REGRESSION OF AQI IN THE WESTERN PROVINCES OF IRAQ DURING THE YEARS OF 2009 AND 2010; HOWEVER, AFTER THE RISE OF THE INSURGENCY IN SYRIA, THE RELIGIOUS AND TRIBAL POWERS IN THE REGIONS BEGAN TO SYMPATHIZE WITH THE SECTARIAN UPRISING. THIS (SYMPATHY) APPEARED IN FRIDAY PRAYER SERMONS, WHICH CALLED FOR VOLUNTEERS TO SUPPORT THE SUNNI’S [sic] IN SYRIA.

7. (C) THE FUTURE ASSUMPTIONS OF THE CRISIS:
A. THE REGIME WILL SURVIVE AND HAVE CONTROL OVER SYRIAN TERRITORY.
B. DEVELOPMENT OF THE CURRENT EVENTS INTO PROXY WAR: …OPPOSITION FORCES ARE TRYING TO CONTROL THE EASTERN AREAS (HASAKA AND DER ZOR), ADJACENT TO THE WESTERN IRAQI PROVINCES (MOSUL AND ANBAR), IN ADDITION TO NEIGHBORING TURKISH BORDERS. WESTERN COUNTRIES, THE GULF STATES AND TURKEY ARE SUPPORTING THESE EFFORTS. THIS HYPOTHESIS IS MOST LIKELY IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE DATA FROM RECENT EVENTS, WHICH WILL HELP PREPARE SAFE HAVENS UNDER INTERNATIONAL SHELTERING, SIMILAR TO WHAT TRANSPIRED IN LIBYA WHEN BENGHAZI WAS CHOSEN AS THE COMMAND CENTER OF THE TEMPORARY GOVERNMENT.

8.C. IF THE SITUATION UNRAVELS THERE IS THE POSSIBILITY OF ESTABLISHING A DECLARED OR UNDECLARED SALAFIST PRINCIPALITY IN EASTERN SYRIA (HASAKA AND DER ZOR), AND THIS IS EXACTLY WHAT THE SUPPORTING POWERS TO THE OPPOSITION WANT, IN ORDER TO ISOLATE THE SYRIAN REGIME, WHICH IS CONSIDERED THE STRATEGIC DEPTH OF THE SHIA EXPANSION (IRAQ AND IRAN)

8.D.1. …ISI COULD ALSO DECLARE AN ISLAMIC STATE THROUGH ITS UNION WITH OTHER TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS IN IRAQ AND SYRIA, WHICH WILL CREATE GRAVE DANGER IN REGARDS TO UNIFYING IRAQ AND THE PROTECTION OF ITS TERRITORY.

http://yournewswire.com/2012-classified-u-s-report-isis-must-rise-to-power/#sthash.MdyHQkEe.dpuf

Taliban Terrorist in Pakistan "CIA worked with Pakistan to create Taliban" http://www.mtholyoke.edu/~amjad20s/classweb2/page2.html
US created ISIL when Syria war began: Analyst
http://m.youtube.com/watch?v=vTAKP6ZzKek&amp;autoplay=1
http://m.huffpost.com/us/entry/5717157
http://www.newstatesman.com/.../wahhabism-isis-how-saudi...
https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=iZU6xbw5dqg
https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=368WnWIO1t0

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https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=l08_dTxbLQw

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https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=HE-14aug3_U

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https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=q9vkLE5IwT8

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https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=hAclQLHNjmc

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http://www.presstv.ir/…/us-created-isil-when-syria-war-beg…/...

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Who created this ISIL Monster Spawns Terror?
http://www.politisite.com/2014/06/22/isis-isil-made-usa-cia/ … http://fb.me/2cSl6Amjd
“The Terrorists R Us.” The Islamic State “Big Lie”... 

http://fb.me/4gPXBUA3k
http://fb.me/38cRYVmT0
A former al-Qaeda operative imprisoned in US says members of the Saudi royal family provided millions of dollars to the terrorist group in the 1990s. Get more details on Press TV website: http://ptv.io/1o3C
Islamophobia late nineteenth and of the twentieth century http://fb.me/1N4NZtdK4

Leon Brittan - Another Strand In ...A Giant Web: http://bit.ly/1wPYjlP 
War Criminal Blair’s links to Rwandan War Criminal President to stay secret – Foreign Office: http://bit.ly/1HCBGMT 

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http://fb.me/3WbGRGAGx

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https://twitter.com/fdejahang

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http://old.tweettunnel.com/reverse2.php?textfield=fdejahang
PressTV- ‘US, Israel using ISIL to split Sunni, Shia
http://www.presstv.com/detail/2014/07/14/371273/us-israel-using-isil-to-split-sunni-shia/

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ISIS and Washington’s Ignorance about the Sunni-Shia Divide
http://www.counterpunch.org/2014/09/15/isis-and-washingtons-ignorance-about-the-sunni-shia-divide/

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http://www.ipsnews.net/2006/07/mideast-sunni-shia-split-fades-as-israel-presses-campaign/

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http://www.globalresearch.ca/israel-joins-forces-with-isis-tel-aviv-bombs-syria-for-sixth-time-in-18-months/5425799

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ISRAEL SUPPORTS JIHADISTS, ISIS IN SYRIA
http://www.infowars.com/israel-supports-jihadists-isis-in-syria/
True World Intelligence News (TWIN)
https://voiceoftruthusa.wordpress.com/2014/06/24/proof-of-a-link-between-israel-and-isil-isis-aka-daash/
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A7hXRC5w5NE
How the British Divided Up the Arab World | Lost Islamic ...
lostislamichistory.com/how-the-british-divided-up-the-arab-world/
26 Dec 2012 - Today, a political map of the Arab world looks like a very complex .... some amount of Arab self-rule in some areas, albeit with European control ...

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Divide and Conquer: The Anglo-American Imperial Project ...
andrewgavinmarshall.com/.../divide-and-conquer-the-anglo-american-im...
9 Jul 2011 - Home » Middle East » Divide and Conquer: The Anglo-American ... Every kind of inter-Arab confrontation will assist us in the short run and will ...

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Racism is still with us. But it is up to us to prepare our children for what they have to meet, and, hopefully, we shall overcome.
Rosa Parks
Racism
The Oppression of Black People-Shining a Light on the Past to Understand the Present http://fb.me/6jbM0L222

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Noam Chomsky and Hypocrites ... http://fb.me/6p6xos6Am
Racism is mental illness. Jane Elliott on Oprah Winfrey Show (1992)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ms4NJx0wwXM

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Albert Einstein Called Racism “A Disease of ...
http://www.openculture.com/2013/08/albert-einstein-civil-rights-activist.html

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Noam Chomsky on America: ‘This is a very racist society’ http://rt.com/usa/214079-chomsky-america-racist-society/
"Shocking" comments
https://twitter.com/boltcomments

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http://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2014/oct/12/mans-racist-attack-brisbane-train-caught-video
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Australia’s history is littered with incidents of prejudice and discrimination based on gender, religion and race.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Racism_in_Australia
'Today, India is Israel's closest eastern ally and its largest arms market. Annual non-military bilateral trade... http://fb.me/3bxfa9uqp
Amir of Bahrain Stop killing peaceful Demonstrators Learn from China..Did China shoot demonstrators? Hong... http://fb.me/2tNRVC0Td
What to do when somebody insults Prophet Muhammad SAW Boycott... http://fb.me/3AessHSWf
Drone attacks in Pakistan are counterproductive, says report
Ann Coulter Still Racist
The Real Ann Coulter Revealed
Rightwing columnist Ann Coulter continued vilifying immigrants as criminals Wednesday in a column poking fun at people with “comically foreign” names.
Politically conservative commentator Ann Coulter has referred to Iranians as "ragheads" (though she later on clarified that she was referring to the government figures, she would later come out in support of Green Revolution protesters in 2009), and Brent Scowcroft has called the Iranian people "rug merchants". Additionally, the Columbus Dispatch recently ran a cartoon that portrayed Iran as a sewer with cockroaches crawling out of it
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anti-Iranian_sentiment

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http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/11/14/ann-coulter-immigrants-criminals_n_4273401.html

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ann_Coulter
War Crimes against Native Americans - World Future Fund
http://www.worldfuturefund.org/wffmaster/Reading/war.crimes/US/Indian.Removal.htm

 

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American Indian Holocaust - RationalWiki
http://rationalwiki.org/wiki/American_Indian_Holocaust
Indians were generally disliked in the United States, as they got in the way ... While Americans readily acknowledge the Nazi crimes against the ...
You've visited this page 3 times. Last visit: 01/02/15
Indian massacre - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_massacre
According to Spanish sources, 900 Tompiro Indians were killed. ..... of settler attacksagainst and mass killing of native people all over Northern California. Site is .

 

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The US and the Crime of Genocide against Native Americans
http://academic.udayton.edu/race/06hrights/georegions/northamerica/UnitedStates02.htm
The US and the Crime of Genocide Against Native Americans. The opposite of love is not hate; it's indifference. The opposite of art is not ugliness; it's indifference. The opposite of faith is not heresy; it's indifference.
Authorities Probe Alleged Hate Crime Against Native ... - NPR
http://www.npr.org/blogs/codeswitch/2015/02/09/383835807/authorities-probe-alleged-hate-crime-against-native-american-kids

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9 Feb 2015 - An investigation into a possible hate crime is underway in Rapid City, S.D., after a group of men allegedly assaulted Native American kids at a ...

 

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Bourgeois on Perry, 'Silent Victims: Hate Crimes against ...
https://networks.h-net.org/node/3180/reviews/6336/bourgeois-perry-silent-victims-hate-crimes-against-native-americans

 

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Violence Against American Indians is a Pervasive Problem ...
http://www.splcenter.org/get-informed/intelligence-report/browse-all-issues/2006/winter/indian-blood
Farmington, N.M. has a history of crimes against American Indians that dates ... She estimates that only around 10% of hate crimes against Native Americans are ...

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Racism against American Indian - Native Americans
http://clevelandsearch.com/Native-Americans.html
According to the US Department of Justice, by its own admission, crimes against Native Americans go unpunished. The DOJ states that some of the problem is ...

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Past genocides committed against Native Americans
http://www.religioustolerance.org/genocide5.htm
12 Oct 2003 - The genocide against American Natives was one of the most ... a small sampling of the horrendous atrocities inflicted on Natives by Europeans.

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Natives Targeted Most for Hate Crimes - ICTMN.com
http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2011/06/27/natives-targeted-most-hate-crimes-40435

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100 Million Native American' Indians Exterminated By Illegal Immigrant 'Settlers'
http://agreenroad.blogspot.co.uk/2013/05/19-to-100-million-native-american.htm

Fact-Finding Mission  PhD Research Western Democracy FARCE AND A SHAM
The West and poverty
<!--[if !supportLineBreakNewLine]-->
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Please stop telling your readers there is no poverty in the West

Western civilisation has been going through a deepening crisis over the last 120 years
Poverty in the United States and Other Western Countries
Issue Guide: Western Europe and the Global Financial Crisis
http://www.cfr.org/
…/issue-guide-western-europe-glob…/p19525
War, Racism and the Empire of Poverty
http://www.globalresearch.ca/war-racism-and-the-empir
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http://www.globalresearch.ca/western-civilization-and
…/18386

Fact-Finding Mission  PhD Research Western Democracy FARCE AND A SHAM
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http://www.economist.com/
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Read more: http://www.nasdaq.com/
…/8-reasons-why-a-new-global-financia…

 

Fact-Finding Mission  PhD Research Western Democracy FARCE AND A SHAM


The Crisis in the West
http://www.the-american-interest.com/
…/the-crisis-in-the-w…/

Fact-Finding Mission  PhD Research Western Democracy FARCE AND A SHAM


Power Shifts, Economic Change and the Decline of the West?
http://www.lse.ac.uk/IDEAS/pdf/Cox-Waltz.pdf

Fact-Finding Mission  PhD Research Western Democracy FARCE AND A SHAM


Crisis and recovery: the threat to western elites
http://www.prospectmagazine.co.uk/
…/crisis-and-recovery-the…

 

Fact-Finding Mission  PhD Research Western Democracy FARCE AND A SHAM


Political, economic and climatic crises of Western civilisation
http://www.pambazuka.net/en/category.php/features/55334 

 

Fact-Finding Mission  PhD Research Western Democracy FARCE AND A SHAM

 

400,000 children living in poverty in the West Midlands ...
www.birminghammail.co.uk
› News › Aston and Nechells

 

Fact-Finding Mission  PhD Research Western Democracy FARCE AND A SHAM


2 Jul 2014 - The West Midlands has again been shamed by new child poverty figures revealing the area had the biggest problem outside London.
https://plus.google.com/10531500423571267…/posts/CsPR44AFAKN

 

Fact-Finding Mission  PhD Research Western Democracy FARCE AND A SHAM


Child poverty statistics: how the UK compares to other ...
www.theguardian.com
› Lifestyle › Poverty
11 Sep 2009 - Child poverty statistics show UK children suffer some of the worst ... proportion of children in poverty than any other western European nation.

 

Fact-Finding Mission  PhD Research Western Democracy FARCE AND A SHAM


Child poverty up in more than half of developed world since ...
www.theguardian.com
› Business › Poverty
28 Oct 2014 - Unicef report finds number of children entering poverty during ... hit by the recession, according to the report, with 7.5 million within the EU not ...

 

Fact-Finding Mission  PhD Research Western Democracy FARCE AND A SHAM


Children at risk of poverty or social exclusion - Statistics ...
ec.europa.eu/
…/Children_at_risk_of_poverty_or_social_exclusi...
20 Apr 2015 - This article presents statistical data on the situation of children (aged 0-17) in the European Union (EU) who were at risk of poverty or social ..
http://www.westword.com/
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Fact-Finding Mission  PhD Research Western Democracy FARCE AND A SHAM

 

The below catalogue of Australian involvement in Genocide as defined by the UN Genocide Convention – and notably in British and American-imposed genocides - is given in roughly chronological order from 1788, the year of European Invasion and First Settlement, to 2008.
1. 18th -19th century Aboriginal Genocide (the Indigenous Aboriginal population dropped from about 1 million to 0.1 million in the first century after invasion in 1788).
2. Tasmanian Aboriginal Genocide (the "full-blood" Indigenous population dropped from 6,000 to zero from 1776 to 1803.
3. British Indian Genocide (post-invasion excess deaths 0.6 billion, 1757-1837; 0.5 billion, 1837-1901 under Queen Victoria; 0.4 Billion, 1901-1947.
4. European Chinese Genocide (10-100 million deaths in the European imperialism-driven Tai Ping rebellion period; Australia was involved in suppressing the Boxer rebellion).
5. Maori Genocide (Maori population dropped from 0.1-0.2 million in 1800 to 42,000 in 1893; Australia was involved in the 19th century Maori wars).
6. African Genocide (scores of million perished over 5 centuries of European slavery and colonialism; Australians participated in the Sudan War, 1881-1898).
7. Pacific Genocide (there was a catastrophic population decline due to introduced disease and slavery; thus 40,000 Fijians died from measles out of a population of 150,000 in 1876; "blackbirding" slavery was conducted by Australians in the late 19th century).
8. Boer (Afrikaaner) Genocide (1899-1902; 28,000 Afrikaaner women and children died in British concentration camps; Australians participated in the Boer War as immortalized in the movie "Breaker Morant").
9. Armenian Genocide (1.5 million killed; the Australian invasion of Gallipoli as part of an Anglo-French force in 1915 helped to precipitate this atrocity; indeed April 24 is Armenian Genocide Day and April 25 is the day of the Australia invasion in 1915 and also a sacred war dead remembrance day for Australians and New Zealanders – it is called Anzac Day after the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) which stormed ashore on that first Anzac Day at Gallipoli in 1915).
10. Bengali Genocide (6-7 million perished in the "forgotten" man-made Bengal Famine atrocity in Bengal and adjoining provinces in British India, 1943-1945; Australians were there and indeed the Governor of Bengal in 1944 was an Australian, R.G. Casey).
11. British post-1950 Third World Genocide (1950-2005 excess deaths in countries subject to British occupation as a major occupier in the post-war era totalled 727 million; Australia has the same Head of State as the UK and continues to be a loyal military ally of the UK in Occupied Iraq and Occupied Afghanistan).
12. US post-1950 Third World Genocide (1950-2005 excess deaths in countries subject to US occupation as a major occupier in the post-war era totalled 82 million; Australia participated in all post-1950 US Asian Wars in Korea, Indo-China, Iraq and Afghanistan with Indigenous Asian excess deaths now totalling 25 million).
13. Australian Colonial Genocide (1950-2005 excess deaths in countries subject to Australian occupation as a major occupier in the post-war era, namely Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands totalled 2.1 million).
14. 20th century Aboriginal Genocide (total excess deaths clearly of the order of 1million; 0.1 million Stolen Generations Aboriginal children forcibly removed from their Mothers in the 19th and 20th centuries; excess deaths in the 11 years of the Bush-ite Coalition Government totalled 90,000 for 1996-2007).
The following Australian genocide involvements in this catalogue of horrors are ongoing.
15. Palestinian Genocide (post-1967 excess deaths 0.3 million, post-1967 under-5 infant deaths 0.2 million and 7 million refugees; with bi-partisan agreement Australia provides diplomatic, financial and haven support for Israeli state terrorism – even when directed against tens of thousands of Australian citizens as in Lebanon in mid-2006 - and up to life imprisonment for anyone giving support to the Hamas Party that overwhelmingly won the 2006 Occupied Palestinian elections).
16. Iraqi Genocide (4 million excess deaths 1990-2008; 2 million post-invasion excess deaths, 0.6 million post-invasion under-5 infant deaths and 4.5 million refugees; Australia militarily involved since 1990 ).
17. Afghan Genocide (3-7 million post-invasion excess deaths, 2.3 million post-invasion under-5 infant and 4 million refugees; Australia involved militarily since 2001).
18. Ongoing Aboriginal Genocide (9,000 excess deaths annually; 90,000 excess deaths in the last 11 years of Bush-ite Coalition rule; see MWC News).
19. Biofuel Genocide (16 million die avoidably each year but this is increasingly biofuel-impacted as the legislatively-mandated US, UK and EU biofuel perversion forces up global food prices; Australia is a major sugar cane grower and sugar exporter with 60% of sugar going to bioethanol production worldwide; Australia has biofuel-promoting legislation and is a major canola grower, this being a major source for biodiesel; see MWC News).
20. Climate Genocide (16 million die avoidably each year already from deprivation and deprivation-exacerbated disease; Professor James Lovelock FRS says that over 6 million will perish this century die to unaddressed climate change; on a per capita basis Australia is among the very worst greenhouse gas (GHG) polluters – in terms of 2004 figures for "fossil fuel-derived annual per capita CO2 pollution" Australia is about 40 times worse than India and 160 times worse than Bangladesh if you include Australia's world number 1 coal exports; see MWC News).
Yet politically correct racist Australia steadfastly "looks the other way" and its past and present involvements in the above atrocities are overwhelmingly not reported by racist, lying, holocaust-ignoring Mainstream media nor taught in Australia's schools and universities. PC racist White Australia just cannot see the "Elephant in the room" – its continuing involvement in over 2 centuries of horrendous genocide.
Australians are trapped in an Orwellian dream - Australia will only stop doing it when it is informed that it is doing it. Please inform everyone you can.
An edited version of Australia's Secret Genicide History
By: Dr Gideon Polya BSc
Article edited by Bruce Skewes, Sub-editor of Treaty Republic
Key References:
A key reference is the book 'Body Count. Global avoidable mortality since 1950' by Dr Gideon Polya. Other relevant books are Chalk, F. and Jonassohn, K. (1990), The History and Sociology of Genocide. Analyses and Case Studies (Yale University Press, New Haven & London); Tatz, C. (2003), With Intent to Destroy. Reflecting on Genocide (Verso, London); and Blum, W. (2006), Rogue State, A guide to the world's only superpower (Zed Books, London).
Other references:
• Body Count. Global avoidable mortality since 1950 (G.M. Polya, Melbourne, 2007).
• Australia's secret genocide history. 'Bundoora Eucalyptus' and Black Crimes of White Australia".
• Stolen Generations. Australian Aboriginal Genocide Aboriginal Genocide.
• Racist White Australian child abuse and passive mass murder
• Australian Aboriginal Genocide
• Australian genocide. Oz ignores Aboriginal Iraqi, Afghan and Climate genocides.
Gideon Polya 'Media wirh conscience'
Also add
List of massacres of Indigenous Australians - Wikipedia, the ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/…/List_of_massacres_of_Indigenous_…
The colonial Australian frontier war was unofficial, undeclared and ..... "Water view", North Bundaberg, at least 15 to 20 Aborigines killed in a dispersal by Native ...
Australian Anzac & Armenian Genocide - MWC News 
mwcnews.net

 

Fact-Finding Mission  PhD Research Western Democracy FARCE AND A SHAM


› Focus › Analysis
25 Apr 2011 - Analysis • Photos • Editorial • Politics • Letters to Editor • Interactive ... 25 April is marked as Anzac Day in Australia and New Zealand that commemorates .... 18th-19th century Aboriginal Genocide (the Indigenous Aboriginal population ... European Chinese Genocide (20-100 million deaths in the European ...
Australia's Secret Genocide History - yet genocidal ... 
https://sites.google.com/…/abor…/australia-s-secret-genocide
...
For an image of the huge “Bundoora Eucalyptus” painting see: .... Armenian Genocide (1.5 million killed; the Australian invasion of Gallipoli as part of an ... 20th century Aboriginal Genocide (total excess deaths clearly of the order of 1million; ...

 

Fact-Finding Mission  PhD Research Western Democracy FARCE AND A SHAM


Aboriginal Genocide - Google Sites 
https://sites.google.com/site/aboriginalgenocide/
The Indigenous population dropped from about 1 million to 0.1 million in the first ... and the Australian Aboriginal life expectancy is about 20 years less than that ...
Who killed more than 50 million Indians in South America? Was it Muslims?
Who took about 180 million of African people as slaves, of whom 88% died and thrown in the Atlantic? Was it Muslims?



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Fact-Finding Mission  PhD Research Western Democracy FARCE AND A SHAM

 

Five lessons from the de-listing of MEK as a terrorist group

Glenn Greenwald  https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2012/sep/23/iran-usa

 

Fact-Finding Mission  PhD Research Western Democracy FARCE AND A SHAM

 

UANI, Joe Lieberman And The MEK

https://lobelog.com/uani-joe-lieberman-and-the-mek/

Mujahedin Khalq Organization (MKO): US-Israel Sponsored Terrorist ... <!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="sbresult_0" o:spid="_x0000_i1032" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="" style="'width:24pt;height:24pt'/"><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->

https://www.globalresearch.ca/mujahedin-khalq...mko-us...terrorist...iran/5423450

Five lessons from the de-listing of MEK as a terrorist group | Glenn ... <!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="sbresult_1" o:spid="_x0000_i1033" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="" style="'width:24pt;height:24pt'/"><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->

https://www.theguardian.com › Opinion › Iran

Fact-Finding Mission  PhD Research Western Democracy FARCE AND A SHAM


Iranian terrorist group has close US allies | US & Canada | Al Jazeera <!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="sbresult_2" o:spid="_x0000_i1034" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="" style="'width:24pt;height:24pt'/"><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->

www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2011/08/201184132732146192.html

 

Fact-Finding Mission  PhD Research Western Democracy FARCE AND A SHAM

Iranian Cult Is No Longer Officially a Terrorist Group | WIRED <!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="sbresult_3" o:spid="_x0000_i1035" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="" style="'width:24pt;height:24pt'/"><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->

https://www.wired.com/2012/09/mek-terrorists/

Fact-Finding Mission  PhD Research Western Democracy FARCE AND A SHAM

Giuliani was paid advocate for shady Iranian dissident group - The ... <!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="sbresult_5" o:spid="_x0000_i1036" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="" style="'width:24pt;height:24pt'/"><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->

https://www.washingtonpost.com/.../giuliani-was-paid-advocate-for-shady-iranian-diss...

Fact-Finding Mission  PhD Research Western Democracy FARCE AND A SHAM

MEK: When terrorists are armed, funded and respected - Khamenei.ir <!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="sbresult_6" o:spid="_x0000_i1037" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="" style="'width:24pt;height:24pt'/"><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->

english.khamenei.ir/news/.../MEK-When-terrorists-are-armed-funded-and-respected

Fact-Finding Mission  PhD Research Western Democracy FARCE AND A SHAM

Mujahideen-e Khalq: Former U.S. Officials Make Millions Advocating ... <!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="sbresult_7" o:spid="_x0000_i1038" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="" style="'width:24pt;height:24pt'/"><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->

https://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/08/08/mek-lobbying_n_913233.html

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8 Aug 2011 - That agenda: to secure the removal of the Mujahideen-e Khalq (MEK) from the U.S. government's list of Foreign Terrorist Organizations. A Marxian Iranian exile group with ... Wesley K.Clark and former Commander in Chief of United States Central Command Gen. Anthony Zinni have both addressed MEK ...

Fact-Finding Mission  PhD Research Western Democracy FARCE AND A SHAM

America's favorite terrorist outfit: the MKO | Crescent International ... <!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="sbresult_8" o:spid="_x0000_i1039" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="" style="'width:24pt;height:24pt'/"><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->

https://crescent.icit-digital.org/articles/america-s-favorite-terrorist-outfit-the-mko

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The Mujahideen-e Khalq Organization (MKO) is one of America's favourite terrorist outfits. ... Bill Richardson, Howard Dean and Rudolf Giuliani, ex-FBI director Louis Freeh, former CIA directors Porter Goss and James Woolsey, and Obama's former national security adviser General James Jones, and General Wesley Clark.

An Iranian Cult and Its American Friends - The New York Times <!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="sbresult_9" o:spid="_x0000_i1040" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="" style="'width:24pt;height:24pt'/"><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->

www.nytimes.com/2011/08/14/.../an-iranian-cult-and-its-american-friends.html

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13 Aug 2011 - Hugh H. Shelton and Peter Pace; Wesley K. Clark, the former NATO commander; Gen. James L. .... “They are considered traitors and killers of Iranian kids,” said the official, who spoke on the condition of anonymity because the Mujahedeen Khalq's status on the terrorist list is under review. “They are so ...

https://twitter.com/fdejahang/media

Students N S E W thank you Caissons is our no 1 340 views https://www.slideshare.net/DrFereidounDejahang/presentations …

New episode: Understanding Iran's protests, and the dangers of foreign meddling, with Mazda Majidi

https://twitter.com/ModerateRadio/status/949989215613411328


Silence becomes cowardice when occasion demands speaking out the whole truth and acting accordingly.
–Mahatma Gandhi
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Student Room Conscious Mind Rostam Cafe
Weekly Lesson-PPTs PDF...Articles...Research papers ..

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Fact-Finding Mission  PhD Research Western Democracy FARCE AND A SHAM

MICROSOFT OneDrive PPT’s PDF’s BOOK LESSONS 
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Fact-Finding Mission  PhD Research Western Democracy FARCE AND A SHAM
MICROSOFT OneDrive 
PDF’s
https://onedrive.live.com/?id=root&amp;amp;cid=930D39904D8DEFF0
WORDPRESS.COM 

Belief in Divine Book
https://wordpress.com/post/beliefindivinebook.wordpress.com/6
Construction Productivity
https://wordpress.com/post/constructionproductivityblog.wordpress.com/4
Belief in Divine Book
https://wordpresscomposthalleyscometandmore.wordpress.com/
https://drdej2016.edublogs.org/wp-admin/profile.php
SLIDE SHARE
http://www.slideshare.net/DrFereidounDejahang/presentations
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POWERSHOW.COM waiting 
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PPTs IN SLIDESHARE 
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STUDIES
A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE LIVES OF THE TWELVE IMAMS
From the "Battle of the Camel," "Battle of Siffin", "Battle of Nahrawan", " Battle of Uhud", "Battle of Hunayn", " Battle of Khaybar", " Battle of Khandaq" ETC...........to Takfiri/ISIS Terrorist Cult/..2016 
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Fact-Finding Mission  PhD Research Western Democracy


THERE ARE NO SUNGLASSES 
https://therearenosunglasses.wordpress.com/

Khalaf Ahmad Al-Habtoor, Guest Commentary

“A broken” and “haunted” man was the Telegraph’s description of former British Prime Minister Tony Blair following the release of the Iraq War report. What I saw was a good ‘poor little me’ act performed to perfection in an attempt to salvage remnants of his reputation. “I didn’t lie or deceive,” he emphasized over and over with teary eyes while still insisting that “The world is better off without Saddam”.


TEHRAN TIMES
http://www.tehrantimes.com/

Iran’s Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif says the Trump administration is giving voice to Israel's falsification of the Torah to promote Iranophobia.   

Zarif after Pompeo remarks: Even Torah distorted to serve Iranophobia

How US, Iranian regional security strategies diverge

By Seyed Hossein Mousavian

The top commander of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC), Maj. Gen. Mohammad Ali Jafari, earlier this week declared that Iran has trained 100,000 voluntary forces to share experiences and know-how with the Iraqi and Syrian militaries. In this vein, Jafari also asserted that Iran’s strategy in the region has been far more effective in containing the Islamic State’s (IS') terrorism compared to that of the United States, which has spent a hefty amount for the same purpose.

 

PALASTINE NEWS NETWORK 
http://english.pnn.ps/category/policy/

Palestine Solidarity Campaign condemns UK government votes at UN Human Rights Council

 


RAW STORY
http://www.rawstory.com/category/nation/

 

‘We’re not going to go there’: Chris Wallace shuts down Jason Chaffetz for veering into Mueller conspiracy theory

Former Rep. Jason Chaffetz (R-UT) alleged on Sunday that special counsel Robert Mueller’s team needs to be investigated because they illegally targeted President Donald Trump and his campaign. During a panel discussion on Fox News Sunday,...

COMMON DREAMS
http://www.commondreams.org
THE DAILY BEAST
http://www.thedailybeast.com/politics.html

 

Trump’s ‘Free Speech’ Order for Campuses Is Really a Gag


WE ARE NOT NUMBERS
http://wearenotnumbers.org/.

THE UGLY TRUTH
https://theuglytruth.wordpress.com/

Try the link is not working


FOREIGN POLICY IN FOCUS 
http://fpif.org/

America’s Generals Haven’t Learned Anything from Iraq

Sixteen years after the Iraq War, the Army's official history of the war reads like a string of empty platitudes.

India’s Violent Mobs Are a Menace to Minorities — and Democracy

https://fpif.org/indias-violent-mobs-are-a-menace-to-minorities-and-democracy/

The World’s Most Dangerous Divide

If nuclear war comes, it will happen because of a calculation or miscalculation by India or Pakistan.


Fact-Finding Mission  Western Democracy PhD Research Student Room

 

MONDOWEISS
http://mondoweiss.net/features

Another Trump gift to Israel: ending taboo on official visits to Western Wall

Kate on March 23, 2019

In May 2017, Donald Trump became the first sitting US president to visit the Western Wall. Now other international officials are following suit– despite the fact that it is illegally-annexed territory. A report from Raphael Ahren of the Times of Israel.

Fact-Finding Mission  Western Democracy PhD Research Student Room

 

Fact-Finding Mission  Western Democracy PhD Research Student Room


/JAFRIAN NEWS 
http://jafrianews.com/

 

Fact-Finding Mission  Western Democracy PhD Research Student Room


FP
http://foreignpolicy.com/

Extremism Is Riyadh’s Top Export

 

Saudi Arabia is fighting for a dangerous monopoly on Islamic thought


RT.COM
http://rt.com/news/

Pakistan deploys Chinese air defense systems, more attack & surveillance drones at India’s border

Pakistan has deployed more Chinese medium-range air defense missiles across several cities and military bases, to prevent any intrusions after the Indian Air Force carried out cross-border anti-terrorist strikes last month.

 

Fact-Finding Mission  Western Democracy PhD Research Student Room


AH Tribune
http://ahtribune.com/world.html

March 23 ,2019

BY Ahmad Al Khaled

US Has a Plan for Eastern Syria, and It Relies on ISIS


THE HILL
http://thehill.com/blogs/floor-action/senate/280179-senate-passes-bill-allowing-9-11-victims-to-sue-saudi-arabia
teleSUR English
https://www.facebook.com/telesurenglish/?pnref=story
GIA
https://gianalytics.org/page/about
972 MAG
http://972mag.com/c/news/
SYRIAN NEWS
http://www.syrianews.cc/

 

ALL INFORMATION NEWS SOURCE


ECONOMY IN CRISIS 
http://economyincrisis.org/
MINT PRESS NEWS 
http://www.mintpressnews.com/
SYRIAN FREE PRESS
https://syrianfreepress.wordpress.com/
MAP
http://www.map-uk.org/home/homepage
TOMATO BUBBLE
http://tomatobubble.com/id661.html
fort-russ.com
http://www.fort-russ.com/2016/05/hitler-was-financed-by-federal-reserve.html?m=1
LAROUCHEPAC
https://larouchepac.com/20160515/putin-winning-through-creativity-us-must-learn-lesson#.VzlHsKETV4k.facebook
PATHEOS
http://www.patheos.com/

Jesus Was a Socialist

Many Christians think socialism is at odds with their faith. But Jesus taught (and the early church modeled) principles very much in line with socialist thinking. Let’s take a look at the many things Jesus had to say on this subject.

read more


COUNTER PUNCH
http://www.counterpunch.org/

The Ghost of Fascism in the Post-Truth Era

by Henry Giroux

We do not live in a post-truth world and never have. On the contrary, we live in a pre-truth world where the truth has yet to arrive. As one of the primary currencies of politics, lies have a long history in the United States.  For instance, state sponsored lies played a crucial ideological role in pushing the US into wars in Vietnam, Iraq, and Afghanistan, legitimated the use of Torture under the Bush administration, and covered up the crimes of the financial elite in producing the economic crisis of 2008.  Under Trump, lying has become a rhetorical gimmick in which everything that matters politically is denied, reason loses its power for informed judgments, and language serves to infantilize and depoliticize as it offers no room for individuals to translate private troubles into broader

COUNTER PUNCH
http://www.counterpunch.org/

 

Spectacular Violence as a Weapon of War Against the Yellow Vests

by Gabriel Rockhill

Violence is a spectacular weapon deployed by the ruling class to discredit movements from below and justify their repression. It is spectacular in the sense of being a great and powerful political tool for governing the masses, and keeping them in their place. In order to do this, however, the weapon of violence is spectacularin a second sense: it creates a carefully orchestrated mise en scène that seeks to render ruling class violence invisible, while simultaneously transforming acts of resistance into prodigious spectacles of criminal violence. More

 

COUNTER PUNCH
http://www.counterpunch.org/

 

Trump vs. McCain: an American Horror Story

by H. Bruce Franklin

Why is Donald Trump deliberately picking a fight with the ghost of John McCain? It might seem he has nothing to gain and much to lose from this battle.  Therefore many believe this is just more evidence of his narcissism, impulsiveness, and thoroughly nasty personality.  Beware of underestimating Trump’s skillful and devious political acumen.  As often, the president is speaking in coded language to his base, which regards McCain as the Judas who betrayed all those thousands of American POWs left behind in Vietnam.  More

 

RON PAUL.COM
http://www.ronpaul.com/contact/

 

NEWS WIRE
http://yournewswire.com/

 

Former CIA officer Robert David Steele warns that the Christchurch mosque shooting bears the hallmarks of a classic ‘false flag’ operation.

In an interview with Tehran Times, Steele claims the shooting was orchestrated by the shadow government as part of a plan to disarm the general population and ignite World War III.

Tehrantimes.com reports:

 


TELESURTV
http://www.telesurtv.net/english/section/news/index.html

 

US Regime Change Blueprint Proposed Venezuelan Electricity Blackouts as 'Watershed Event' for 'Galvanizing Public Unrest'


PROGRESSIVE SECULAR 
http://www.patheos.com/blogs/progressivesecularhumanist/

 

Dangerous Biblical Fantasies: Secretary of State Mike Pompeo suggests that God may have sent President Donald Trump to Earth to save Israel and protect the Jews. In a recent interview with the Christian Broadcasting Network (CBN News) Secretary of State Pompeo said it is “possible” that President Donald Trump was sent by God to save the Jewish people from Iran. During the interview with CBN Pompeo was asked: Could it be that that President Trump right now has been sort… Read more


STRATEGIC CULTURE
http://www.strategic-culture.org/

Iraq: How We Were Lied into War

 

No one in the US or Britain ever faced trial for war-mongering and killing vast numbers of people. The lying media escaped well-deserved censure. As for the lying politicians who brought on this disaster, they blamed poor intelligence and bad luck. Those few who opposed the war of aggression remain sidelined or silenced.
SPUTNIK NEWS
http://sputniknews.com/

 

20th Anniversary of NATO's Bombing of Yugoslavia (7)

9350

We’re coming up shortly to the 20th anniversary of the start of the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia. It began on 24th March 1999 and lasted for 78 days. There was no break, not even for Orthodox Easter.

MIDDLE EAST EYE
http://www.middleeasteye.net/

'Tip of the spear': The US Christian movement praying for Trump and Israel

AIPAC faces noisy scrutiny over its lobbying for Israel, but is it Christian Zionist evangelicals who wield real influence in the White House?
MONDOWEISS
http://mondoweiss.net/about-mondoweiss

Pro-pot, anti-Arab: ultra-right Moshe Feiglin rises in Israeli polls on marijuana legalization platform

Israel/Palestine Yumna Patel on March 22, 2019

THE WORLD’S PLATFORM FOR CHANGE


https://www.change.org/

 

Myrtle Cothill is a frail 92-year-old South African lady. She is at risk of being removed by the Home Office to a country where she has nobody to look after her and nowhere to stay.
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MEDIA MATTERS
http://mediamatters.org/


TRUE ACTIVIST
http://www.trueactivist.com/

According To The 2019 Healthiest Country Index, Spain Ranks As No.1 Healthiest Country In The World
Read More: http://www.trueactivist.com/according-to-the-2019-healthiest-country-index-spain-ranks-as-no-1-healthiest-country-in-the-world-t1/

IA CENTER
http://www.iacenter.org/

U.S. steps up diplomatic, economic pressure on Venezuela


INDEPENDENT
http://www.independent.co.uk/


GLOBAL RESEARCH
http://www.globalresearch.ca/

What Can We Do? They Are Insane! By Philip Giraldi, March 23, 2019

 

Pompeo clearly believes that this is all part of some divine plan. Anyone who persists in thinking that nations should pursue policies that are rational and based on genuine interests should be appalled by the Pompeo comments and fearful of what the consequences might be.


RELIEF WEB
http://reliefweb.int/

Humanitarian Situation in Mindanao (March 22, 2019) - Armed Clashes Displace 50,000 People


TRUST.ORG
http://www.trust.org/item/20150611150337-8hjcq

Over 20 million in war-torn Yemen need humanitarian aid - UNICEF


NATION OF CHANGE 
http://www.nationofchange.org/2015/


A SHEEP NO MORE 
http://asheepnomore.net

How To Identify A Globalist Criminal


RUSSIA INSIDER 
http://russia-insider.com/en

The Alt-Right Declares War on Trump for Betrayal on Immigration, Opposes Re-election

 

SOUTH CHINA MORNING POST 
http://www.scmp.com/news/asia

 

Starved, beaten with hammer: worst domestic worker abuse cases

The Singaporeans jailed this week for ordering their domestic worker to eat her own vomit were not a one-off. From Hong Kong’s Erwiana to an Indonesian beaten with bamboo, here are Asia’s most notorious cases of helper abuse.

VOX NEWS
http://www.vox.com/

 

Bill Barr’s letter summarizing Mueller’s findings, explained

Mueller didn’t establish collusion between the Trump campaign and Russian government, and punted on obstruction of justice.

By Andrew Prokop

RT NEWS
http://rt.com/news/
VT
http://www.veteranstoday.com/

Corrupt groups that create sedition and destroy stability and the denial of society, it is time to hold accountable and expose the misguided stray band that has become a real nightmare for every moderate Muslim.

The Wahhabis, their hypocrisy, their eloquence, and their pretense, after their knowledge of the definition of Wahhabiism and its nature, were so much discussed, so we liked in this article to expose them and expose them to people.

 


NDTV
http://www.ndtv.com/opinion/pakistans-resilience-beats-modis-56-inch-chest-771700

 

CANADA TALKS 
http://canadatalksisraelpalestine.ca/

Ali Abunimah: “the only moral solution to the Israel/Palestine conflict lies in one democratic state with equality for all”


BURNING BLOGGER
https://theburningbloggerofbedlam.wordpress.com/

In June 2014, a group of armed militants and extremists made their dramatic journey across the Syrian border into Iraq, quickly capturing Mosul and Baiji and almost reaching the capital Baghdad.



SYRIA 360 
https://syria360.wordpress.com/

21 Hospitalized with Poisoning Symptoms After Foreign-Backed Militants Launch Gas Attack


BRASS CHECK TV
http://www.brasschecktv.com/videos/hidden-history

The Spanish, Portuguese, and Dutch started the African slave industry, but England quickly became the leading force.
Liverpool was THE center of the slave trade: financing, ship building, operations etc.

Then the "free" US jumped in, and as they say these days, took it to the next level.
So why did slavery come to an end?
To bring justice to the world? To end racism? Please, don't make me laugh.
It was just a re-arrangement of the furniture.

 


MINT PRESS NEWS  
http://www.mintpressnews.com/

 

U.S. to International Criminal Court: We Will Break Your Legs

If the ICC begins and is allowed to investigate crimes against humanity committed by the West, the entire twisted concept of the U.S. and Europe being pioneers of freedom and democracy could easily and quickly collapse.

 

 

STEP BACK
https://step-back.org/syria/

 

Making sense of the Syrian conflict; the view in March 2015.

Following the failure of the ‘Geneva II’ talks in January 2014, talks between the external Opposition group and Syrian government representatives mediated by Russia, the light of Western media ceased to illuminate the ongoing conflict in Syria, and soon became focused on Ukraine as its elected president was overthrown in a violent coup. For the average observer there was little relation between events in Syria and those in Ukraine – that Russia was closely involved in both looked like a coincidence where everything else was different – religion, culture and continent. But to understand better the context and roots of these two violent conflicts, the ‘Russian connection’ is paramount.


SHANNON WATCH
http://www.shannonwatch.org/

 

Two US Veterans For Peace Refused Bail at Ennis District Court  

Press Statement: Two US Veterans For Peace refused Bail at Ennis District Court

Monday 18 March

Charged with Trespass and causing Criminal Damage at Shannon Airport  

A group of seven US Veterans for Peace took part in a protest against US Military Base at Shannon Airport on Sunday March 17th.

WHY? Shannon used for refueling troop planes bound for Middle East wars in which up to one million [1,000,000] children have died since 1991.


WSWS 
https://www.wsws.org/en/

French army receives authorization to shoot “yellow vest” protesters

ISLAMIC INSIGHTS 
http://www.islamicinsights.com/

 

Lady Fatima and Her Role as a Mother
END THE OCCUPATION
http://www.endtheoccupation.org/

 

MIDDLE EAST MONITOR
https://www.middleeastmonitor.com/

 

With an eye on Iran, US to open yet another military base in the Middle East
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ICH
http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/

 

Number of Iraqis Slaughtered In US War And Occupation Of Iraq " 1,455,590 "


ALTERNET
http://www.alternet.org/

 

Rep. Schiff claps back at Rudy Giuliani: There is ‘significant evidence of collusion’


FAIR
http://fair.org/

Robert Dreyfuss and Diana Duarte on the Media’s Role in Iraq War

CounterSpin

Corporate media’s role in the lead up to and the ongoing aftermath of the war on Iraq

UPROOTED PALESTINIANS’S BLOG
https://uprootedpalestinians.wordpress.com/

US District Judge Goldberg ruled the Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA) must allow the American Freedom Defense Initiative (AFDI) to post anti-Muslim advertisements, showing a photo of Hitler and an Islamic leader.


TRAPLEY
http://tarpley.net/

Zombie UK Prime Minister May Tries Buckpassing, Blames Parliament for Failure of Brexit; Enraged Calls for Her Ouster Multiply; One Tory MP Complains She’s “Acting Like President Trump!”


NATION OF CHANGE
http://www.nationofchange.org/2015/

The Illusion of Freedom

Justice Chris Hedges -December 29, 2015

This deception will exist as long as we “stay in our place.” Once we call out power for what it is, once we resist, the chimera will vanish. The iron fist of history’s most sophisticated security and surveillance apparatus will assert itself with a terrifying fury.

 

COLLECTIVE EVOLUTION
http://www.collective-evolution.com/

Ex-Model Who Attempted To Reveal Berlusconi’s Satanic Practices Dies From Painful Radioactive Poisoning


THE SLEUTH JOURNAL 
http://www.thesleuthjournal.com/

Child Sex Trafficking through Child “Protection” Services Exposed – Kidnapping Children for Sex (VIDEO)


ABNA 24
http://en.abna24.com/service/archive.html

Syrian forces find weapons, ammo left behind by terrorists in several areas (+Photos)


THE INTERCEPT
https://firstlook.org/theintercept/

Terrorism’s Double Standard

Violent Far-Right Extremists Are Rarely Prosecuted as Terrorists

 


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DEMOCRACY NOW
http://www.democracynow.org/

Human Rights Attorney to Trump: “Israel Is Not Interested in the Golan Heights for Security”


COMMON DREAMS
http://www.commondreams.org/

 

Whether Impeached or Voted Out or Stays Put, Ocasio-Cortez Says Trump 'Symptom of Much Deeper Problems'


SAMIDOUN
http://samidoun.ca/
http://www.ivaw.org/

Solidarity with Ronnie Kasrils and BDS Austria: Fighting apartheid from South Africa to Palestine

 

BIRD
http://birdbh.org/

21 March 2019 – Yesterday, the Bahraini Embassy in London published a string of tweets including the correspondence between the Director of Advocacy at the Bahrain Institute for Rights and Democracy (BIRD), Sayed Ahmed Alwadaei, and t... Read more
TRUE ACTIVIST
http://www.trueactivist.com/

A Boat Made Out Of Flip-Flops And Plastic Waste Sails Around As A Reminder To Keep African Seas Clean Again
Read More: http://www.trueactivist.com/
Read More: http://www.trueactivist.com/



FILMING CUPS
http://filmingcops.com/

WATCH: Cop Caught on Video Punching Man in Head 12 Times Indicted on Federal Crimes

 


JOHN PILGER.COM
http://johnpilger.com/

THE AUSTRALIAN KILLER OF 50 PEOPLE IS THE PRODUCT OF A RACIST HISTORY OF DENIAL



THE IRAN PROJECT 
http://theiranproject.com/

IRGC commander urges further relief efforts in northern Iran

March 24, 2019

Five 2020 US Democrats would return to Iran nuclear dealMarch 24, 2019 1

Trump’s Golan remarks only bolster resistance against Israel, supporters: Iran official


FARS NEWS
http://english.farsnews.com/

 

 

TASNIM
http://www.tasnimnews.com/english/

Yemeni Leader Rejects Pompeo’s Claims on Iranian Missile Support

TEHRAN (Tasnim) – Chairman of Yemen’s Supreme Revolutionary Committee Mohammed Ali al-Houthi vehemently rejected US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo’s recent claims that Iran sends missiles to Houthis and said instead of such claims, the US should end its aggression on Yemen.

 

drdej197

Western Democracy P2

More

Ph. D Research Students P2

Fact-Finding Mission 

The truth is USA Land of opportunity, Milk, Honey, Shooting... and War ..is hideously Bad, Truly Rotten With No Cure. Killing more than 100,000,000 Native Indian American, Slavery and Slaving and constantly at War 93% of the Time – 222 out of 239 Years is not good for anyone living in USA and elsewhere.

Let them kill each other YouTube▶ 1:23

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jQR-oj0FBqA

The U.S. Has Been At War 222 Out of 239 Years

 

Top 10 American War Crimes - Toptenz.net 

 

1. My Lai Massacre

2. Wounded Knee Massacre

3. Abu Ghraib, the Iraq War

4. Kandahar Massacre, War on Terror

5. Azizabad Airstrike, the War on Terror

6. Dachau Massacre, World War II

7. Andersonville Prison, Civil War

8. Gnadenhutten Massacre, American Revolution

9. No Gun Ri Massacre, Korean War

10. The Balinga Massacre, Philippine-American War

 

Most Americans like to think their military is a tool for preserving the freedom and well-being of people throughout the world. Generations of American soldiers have indeed performed noble and heroic feats in defense of these values. However, since the earliest days of the nation, encounters with the US military have often meant death and destruction, as opposed to freedom and justice. From the American Revolution to the War on Terror, soldiers from every generation have taken part in atrocities of one form or another. If there is any hope for preventing American war crimes in the future, the past transgressions of the US military must be acknowledged and, when possible, the perpetrators brought to justice.

10. The Balinga Massacre, Philippine-American War

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During the Spanish-American War in 1898, American forces captured the Philippines. Although the Americans viewed themselves as liberators, Filipinos had been struggling against Spanish imperialism for years. They did not take kindly to one imperial power being replaced with another. What followed was the Philippine-American War, a savage exercise in jungle combat.

After suffering heavy casualties from Philippine insurrectionists in the Samar Province, General Jacob H. Smith sought revenge against the civilian population. He stated, “I want no prisoners. I wish you to kill and burn: the more you kill and burn, the better you will please me.”

General Smith’s troops proceeded to carry out a genocidal campaign in the countryside.  He ordered anybody over ten years of age and capable of bearing arms to be executed, and herded thousands more into concentration camps.

Unfortunately, these actions were only a microcosm of the larger brutality of America’s occupation of the Philippines. It is estimated that at least 34,000 Filipinos were killed as a direct result of the war, and another 200,000 by the cholera epidemic among refugees and those in concentration camps.

9. No Gun Ri Massacre, Korean War

<!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1027" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="No-Gun-Ri-Massacre" style="'width:150.6pt; " height:108.6pt' o:bordertopcolor="this" o:borderleftcolor="this" o:borderbottomcolor="this" o:borderrightcolor="this" o:button="t"> <v:imagedata src="file:///C:\Users\user\AppData\Local\Temp\msohtmlclip1\01\clip_image003.jpg" o:href="https://www.toptenz.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/No-Gun-Ri-Massacre.jpg"/> <w:bordertop type="single" width="4"/> <w:borderleft type="single" width="4"/> <w:borderbottom type="single" width="4"/> <w:borderright type="single" width="4"/> </v:shape><![endif]--> <!--[if !vml]--> No-Gun-Ri-Massacre <!--[endif]-->

When North Korean forces launched a surprise attack on South Korea on June 25, 1950, poorly trained American soldiers from Tokyo were rushed to the peninsula. The invasion created a massive refugee crisis, as civilians fled the oncoming armies. Fearing infiltration by spies posing as civilians, US command forces ordered that no civilians were to be allowed to cross battle lines at any time.

On the same day these orders were issued, up to 400 refugees gathered at a bridge near the village of No Gun Ri were indiscriminately massacred by American forces.

US forces initially denied involvement, stating that no American troops were in the vicinity at the time of the massacre. However, details of the slaughter have emerged in recent years, thanks to the testimonies of both the survivors and perpetrators. As one American veteran recalls, “There was a lieutenant screaming like a madman, fire on everything, kill ’em all … Kids, there was kids out there, it didn’t matter what it was, eight to 80, blind, crippled or crazy, they shot ’em all.”

Unfortunately, this was only the first of many such massacres by American forces in Korea that have come to light in recent years. There has been no justice for the surviving South Koreans either, as the only person to face charges for the crime, Captain Ernest Medina, was court martialed but later acquitted.

8. Gnadenhutten Massacre, American Revolution

<!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1028" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="Gnadenhutten-Massacre" style="'width:135.6pt; " height:87.6pt' o:bordertopcolor="this" o:borderleftcolor="this" o:borderbottomcolor="this" o:borderrightcolor="this" o:button="t"> <v:imagedata src="file:///C:\Users\user\AppData\Local\Temp\msohtmlclip1\01\clip_image005.jpg" o:href="https://www.toptenz.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/Gnadenhutten-Massacre.jpg"/> <w:bordertop type="single" width="4"/> <w:borderleft type="single" width="4"/> <w:borderbottom type="single" width="4"/> <w:borderright type="single" width="4"/> </v:shape><![endif]--> <!--[if !vml]--> Gnadenhutten-Massacre <!--[endif]-->

Life as a settler on the frontier during the American Revolution was an isolated, brutish, and violent place to scrape out an existence. Front lines were non-existent, and there was no chivalry in frontier warfare. There are certainly countless atrocities history will never uncover, but one that stands out is the Gnadenhutten Massacre.

On March 8, 1782, 160 Pennsylvania militiamen surrounded the village of Gnadenhutten in Eastern Ohio. Although the residents of the village were Indians, they were peaceful Christians and neutral in the fight. Nevertheless, the militiamen accused them of conducting raids throughout Pennsylvania, and voted to execute every inhabitant.

The Indians were split into to huts, one for men and the other for women and children, and then bludgeoned to death before being scalped. In all, ninety-six of the one hundred Indians were scalped and killed, and the entire village was set ablaze. One survivor hid in the woods, and others actually survived their scalping and escaped to warn surrounding villages.

7. Andersonville Prison, Civil War

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You might think this NSFW picture is that of a newly liberated prisoner from the Nazi concentration camps. But this man was actually a Union captive held at the POW camp in Andersonville, Georgia during the Civil War.

Life for soldiers on either side of the conflict was a harrowing experience, no matter where they were stationed. Yet arguably the worst place to end up in the entire war was the Camp Sumter military prison in Andersonville. As the largest Confederate prison, the camp was designed with a maximum capacity of 10,000 prisoners. By August 1864, the number of prisoners had swelled to 33,000.

Conditions in the camp were nightmarish. The Confederates were desperately low on provisions for themselves, which meant the POWs got next to nothing. The men had no shelter from the blazing summer sun or the cold winter rain. The small stream flowing through the camp became both a communal toilet and the only source of drinking water. Consequently, the death toll from disease and starvation was staggering. Of the 45,000 men held at the prison throughout its existence, approximately 12,000 died and were buried in mass graves around the camp.

When the war ended, Andersonville commander Henry Wirz was arrested, tried by a military tribunal, and hanged. He was the only person on either side to be executed for war crimes in the Civil War.

6. Dachau Massacre, World War II

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The Dachau concentration camp in Bavaria was one of the most notorious death camps from World War II. At least 32,000 documented killings occurred there, along with unknown thousands that went undocumented. When it was liberated on April 12, 1945, American troops came across hundreds of bodies littering the grounds of Dachau, and the horror of the scene caused many to snap.

During the course of the camp’s liberation, American soldiers killed at least fifty German guards. Some were killed trying to flee, and others were summarily executed. While these killings are obviously indefensible within the modern rules of war, this atrocity is arguably the most understandable on this list. This is but one of many instances of Americans executing Nazi prisoners during the Allied Invasion, and no soldiers were ever prosecuted for their role in the killings.

5. Azizabad Airstrike, the War on Terror

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Since 2001, Afghanistan has continually seen the deaths of civilians at the hands of American ground forces, warplanes, and drone attacks. One of the most notorious took place in the village of Azizabad in the country’s Helmand Province on August 22, 2008.


American forces had received information that a Taliban commander, Mullah Sidiq, was on his way to Azizabad after ambushing American troops. During the night, American AC-130 warplanes carried out a deadly attack on the village. Their bombs killed about ninety civilians, many of whom were children. Although the US claimed to have killed Sidiq in the attack, and that most of the casualties were militants, Sidiq later emerged unharmed and independent investigations concluded there were few, if any, militants in the village.

Despite the carnage of this event, no Americans have been prosecuted for their role in the airstrike. However, a villager named Mohammed Nader was sentenced to death by Afghan authorities for supplying NATO forces with intelligence that led to the attack.

4. Kandahar Massacre, War on Terror

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This attack is exceptional in that, unlike others on the list, it was carried out by a single US soldier. In the early hours of March 11, 2012, Staff Sergeant Robert Bales snuck away from his base in the Panjawi district in the Kandahar Province and entered a nearby house. He shot all ten residents, killing six. Bales returned briefly to the base before setting out again to another nearby home, where he killed twelve more and wounded two others. The sixteen people killed that day included nine children.

After the killings, Bales reportedly returned to his base and promptly confessed to his superiors by simply saying, “I did it.” He pleaded guilty in military court, and in August 2013 was sentenced to life in prison without the possibility of parole.

3. Abu Ghraib, the Iraq War

Much like Afghanistan, America’s occupation of Iraq was witness to many atrocities by American forces. The most famous, if not deadly, of these crimes was the treatment of prisoners at Abu Ghraib. From October to December of 2003, US soldiers with little experience running a prison carried out shockingly sadistic acts on those they were meant to be guarding.

Many detainees were humiliated, tortured, raped, sodomized, and some even killed at the hands of guards. One military report, not meant for public release, outlined some of the forms of torture practiced by the troops: “Breaking chemical lights and pouring the phosphoric liquid on detainees … beating detainees with a broom handle and a chair … sodomizing a detainee with a chemical light and perhaps a broom stick.” Detainees were forced to perform sexual acts on each other, and were strung up in embarrassing and painful positions for hours or days. There are also numerous allegations of detainees being beaten to death by US soldiers and private contractors.

Although there was similar activity occurring other Iraqi and Afghani prisons, the abuses at Abu Ghraib exploded into scandal largely because of photographic evidence (NSFW link) of the torture. These pictures of abuse were widely published, and publications like The New Yorker and 60 Minutes did detailed exposés. As a result of the scandal, eleven soldiers were sentenced to prison terms, but many of the soldiers and private contractors allegedly involved in the abuses have never faced trial.

2. Wounded Knee Massacre

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This entire list could be made up of horrible injustices perpetrated by the US government against the country’s Native American population. One of the most significant was the massacre at Wounded Knee. This incident on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation was the last major conflict of the American Indian Wars. Twenty Medal of Honor citations were granted after the engagement, the most for any single battle in American history.

On December 29, 1890, the American 7th Cavalry had surrounded a band of Sioux, including women and children, at the Wounded Knee Creek. The soldiers demanded the Sioux surrender their weapons, and were in the process of collecting them when the violence began. It is unclear who fired first, but close quarters combat among the Sioux and American soldiers in the encampment was quickly followed by indiscriminate fire into the camp from surrounding US forces. Rifle fire and shrapnel from Hotchkiss cannons raked through the encampment, and mounted soldiers cut down those attempting to flee.

It is estimated that at least 250 of the 350 Sioux were killed in the exchange. Twenty-five Americans died as well, but most are thought to have been killed by friendly fire.

1. My Lai Massacre

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The My Lai Massacre is the most notorious war crime in US history, and has become the benchmark to which all acts of American military savagery is compared.

On March 16, 1968, the men of Charlie Company entered the village of My Lai in South Vietnam to conduct a “search and destroy” mission. Although there were no signs of enemy troops, the soldiers were ordered to enter the village firing. The incident quickly devolved into violence and chaos, as the men of Charlie Company opened fire on the village’s unarmed residents. Among them were many women, children, and elders. It is estimated that over 300 civilians were shot or bayoneted to death during the course of several hours.

Only one soldier, William Calley Jr., was convicted for participation in the massacre. He served three and a half years under house arrest. Perhaps even more chilling than the lack of culpability here is how commonplace this behavior was among American troops. As Colonel Oran Henderson remarked, “Every unit of brigade size has its My Lai hidden someplace.”

 

https://www.toptenz.net/top-10-american-war-crimes.php

United States War Crimes: From Korea to Afghanistan | Global ... <!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="sbresult_2" o:spid="_x0000_i1036" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="" style="'width:24pt;height:24pt'/"><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->

https://www.globalresearch.ca/united-states-war-crimes/5561468

 

United States War Crimes: From Korea to Afghanistan

By Lenora Foerstel and Brian S. Willson

Global Research, January 29, 2017

Global Research 26 January 2002

 

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First published in 2002

Image: Iraqi children

The issue of War Crimes emerged after World War I at the Versailles Conference, but it was not until the end of World War II that a more comprehensive definition of what constitutes war crimes was developed. First among new international conventions addressing war crimes was the 1950 Charter of the Nuremberg Tribunal. Its fundamental premise was that the conduct of war in violation of international treaties was a crime against peace. Ill treatment of prisoners of war, killing hostages, plunder of public or private property, wanton destruction of cities, towns, or villages was a war crime. Crimes against humanity include murder, extermination, deportation, and prosecution based on political, racial or religious grounds.

The 1949 Geneva Convention gave recognition to the development of new technologies which exposed civilian life to greater threats of destruction. A 1977 addendum further emphasized the right of civilians to be protected against military operations. This included the protection of civilians against starvation as a method of warfare. Article II of the Geneva Convention addressed the issue of genocide, defined as killing or causing serious bodily harm to individuals based on their nationality, ethnic, racial or religious group and with the intent to destroy that group.

Since the Geneva Convention, a number of other significant international treaties addressing war and human rights have been drafted, but the United States has rejected almost all of them. Among the treaties that the United States has refused to sign are the International Convention on Civil and Political Rights (1966); the Convention on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966); the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Racial Discrimination (1966), and the American Convention on Human Rights (1965).

The United States has been particularly reluctant to sign treaties addressing the “laws of war”. It has refused to sign The Declaration on the Prohibition of the Use of Thermo-Nuclear Weapons (1961); The Resolution on the Non-Use of Force in International Relations and Permanent Ban on the Use of Nuclear Weapons (1972); The Resolution on the Definition of Aggression (1974); Protocols Additional to the 1949 Geneva Convention (1977); and the Declaration on the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons(1989).1

Equally disturbing was the U.S. refusal to sign the Convention on Rights of the Child, introduced into the United Nations General assembly on November 20, 1989 and subsequently ratified by 191 countries.

The first use of atomic weapons against human beings occurred on August 6-9 1945, when the United States incinerated the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki during World War II, killing an estimated 110,000 Japanese citizens and injuring another 130,000. By 1950 another 230,000 died from injuries and radiation. Earlier in 1945 two fire bombing raids on Tokyo killed 140,000 citizens and injured a million more.

Since World War II the US has bombed twenty-three nations. [2001 figures] Author William Blum notes:

“It is sobering to reflect that in our era of instant world wide communications, the United States has, on many occasions, been able to mount a large or small scale military operation or undertake other equally blatant forms of intervention without the American public being aware of it until years later if ever.”2

The growing primacy or aerial bombardment in the conduct of war has inevitably defined non-combatants as the preferred target of war. Indeed, the combination of American air power and occupation ground forces has resulted in massive civilian casualties around the world.

Korea:1943-1953

On August 15,1945, the Korean people, devastated and impoverished by years of brutality from Japanese occupation forces, openly celebrated their liberation and immediately formed the Committee for the Preparation of Korean Independence (CKPI). By August 28, 1945, all Korean provinces on the entire Peninsula had established local people’s democratic committees, and on September 6, delegates from throughout Korea, north and south, created the Korean People’s Republic (KPR). On September 7, the day after the creation of the KPR, General Douglas MacArthur (image left), commander of the victorious Allied powers in the Pacific, formally issued a proclamation addressed “To the People of Korea.” The proclamation announced that forces under his command “will today occupy the Territory of Korea south of 38 degrees north latitude.”

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The first advance party of U.S. units, the 17th Regiment of the 7th Infantry Division, actually began arriving at Inchon on September 5th, two days before MacArthur’s occupation declaration. The bulk of the US occupation forces began unloading from twenty-one Navy ships (including five destroyers) on September 8 through the port at Inchon under the command of Lieutenant General John Reed Hodge. Hundreds of black-coated armed Japanese police on horseback, still under the direction of Japanese Governor-General Abe Noabuyki, kept angry Korean crowds away from the disembarking US soldiers.

On the morning of September 9, General Hodge announced that Governor-General Abe would continue to function with all his Japanese and Korean personnel. Within a few weeks there were 25,000 American troops and members of “civil service teams” in the country. Ultimately the number of US troops in southern Korea reached 72,000. Though the Koreans were officially characterized as a “semi-friendly, liberated” people, General Hodge regrettably instructed his own officers that Korea “was an enemy of the United States…subject to the provisions and the terms of the surrender.”

Tragically and ironically, the Korean people, citizens of the victim-nation, had become enemies, while the defeated Japanese, who had been the illegal aggressors, served as occupiers in alliance with the United States. Indeed, Korea was burdened with the very occupation originally intended for Japan, which became the recipient of massive U.S. aid and reconstruction in the post-war period. Japan remains, to this day, America=s forward military base affording protection and intelligence for its “interests” in the Asia-Pacific region.

Seventy-three-year-old Syngman Rhee was elected President of ASouth Korea@ on May 10,1948 in an election boycotted by virtually all Koreans except the elite KDP and Rhee’s own right -wing political groups. This event, historically sealing a politically divided Korea, provoked what became known at the Cheju massacre, in which as many as 70,000 residents of the southern island of Cheju were ruthlessly murdered during a single year by Rhee’s paramilitary forces under the oversight of U.S. officers. Rhee took office as President on August 15 and the Republic of Korea (ROK) was formally declared. In response, three-and -a-half weeks later (on September 9, 1948), the people of northern Korea grudgingly created their own separate government, the Democratic People’s’s Republic of Korea (DPRK), with Kim II Sung as its premier.

Korea was now clearly and tragically split in two. Kim Il Sung had survived as a guerrilla fighter against the Japanese occupation in both China and Korea since 1932 when he was twenty years old. He was thirty-three when he returned to Pyongyang in October 1945 to begin the hoped-for era of rebuilding a united Korea free of foreign domination, and three years later, on September 9, 1948, he became North Korea’s first premier. The Rhee/U.S. forces escalated their ruthless campaign of cleansing the south of dissidents, identifying as a suspected “communist” anyone who opposed the Rhee regime, publicly or privately. In reality, most participants or believers in the popular movement in the south were socialists unaffiliated with outside “communist” organizations.

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As the repression intensified, however, alliances with popular movements in the north, including communist organizations, increased. The Cheju insurgency was crushed by August 1949, but on the mainland, guerrilla warfare continued in most provinces until 1959-51. In the eyes of the commander of US military forces in Korea, General Hodge, and new “President” Syngman Rhee, (left) virtually any Korean who had not publicly professed his allegiance to Rhee was considered a “communist” traitor. As a result, massive numbers of farmers, villagers and urban residents were systematically rounded up in rural areas, villages and cities throughout South Korea. Captives were regularly tortured to extract names of others. Thousands were imprisoned and even more thousands forced to dig mass graves before being ordered into them and shot by fellow Koreans, often under the watch of U.S. troops.

The introduction of U.S./UN military forces on June 26,1950 occurred with no American understanding (except by a few astute observers such as journalist I.F Stone) that in fact they were entering an ongoing revolutionary civil war waged by indigenous Koreans seeking genuine independence after five years of U.S. interference. The American occupation simply fueled Korean passions even more while creating further divisions among them.

In the Autumn of 1950, when U.S. forces were in retreat in North Korea, General Douglas MacArthur offered all air forces under his command to destroy “every means of communication, every installation, factory, city and village ” from the Yalu River, forming the border between North Korea and China, south to the battle line. The massive saturation bombing conducted throughout the war, including napalm, incendiary, and fragmentation bombs, left scorched cities and villages in total ruins. As in World War II, the U.S. strategic bombing campaign brought mass destruction and shockingly heavy civilian casualties. Such tactics were in clear violation of the Nuremburg Charter, which had, ironically, been created after World War II, largely due to pressure from the U.S. The Nuremburg Tribunal defined “the wanton destruction of cities, towns or villages” to be a war crime and declared that Ainhumane acts against any civilian population” were a crime against humanity.

From that fateful day on September 8, 1945 to the present, a period of 56 years, U.S. military forces (currently numbering 37,000 positioned at 100 installations) have maintained a continuous occupation in the south supporting de facto U.S. rule over the political, economic and military life of a needlessly divided Korea. This often brutal occupation and the persistent U.S. support for the repressive policies of dictatorial puppets continues to be the single greatest obstacle to peace in Korea, preventing the inevitable reunification of the Korean Peninsula.

Until 1994, all of the hundreds of thousands of South Korean defense forces operated under direct U.S. command. Even today, although integrated into the Combined Forces Command (CFC), these forces automatically revert to direct US control when the US military commander in Korea determines that there is a state of war.

Iraq +15: Accumulated Evil of the Whole

Indonesia: (1958-1965)

After 350 years of colonialism, President Sukarno, with the cooperation of the communist party (PKI), sought to make Indonesia an independent socialist democracy. Sukarno’s working relationship with the PKI would not be tolerated by Washington. Under the direction of the CIA, rebels in the Indonesian army were armed, trained and equipped in preparation for a military coup. The Indonesian army=s campaign against the PKI in 1965-66 brought the dictator Suharto to power. Under his rule, teachers, students, civil servants and peasants were systematically executed. In Central and East Java alone, 60,000 were killed. In Bali, some 50,000 people were executed, and thousands more died in remote Indonesian villages. In some areas citizens were confined in Navy vessels which were then sunk to the bottom of the sea.

The most extensive killing were committed against suspected PKI supporters identified by U.S. intelligence. Historian Gabriel Kollo states that the slaughter in Indonesia “ranks as a crime of the same type as the Nazi perpetrated.”3

Recent revealed documents at George Washington University’s National Security Achive confirmed how effectively the Indonesian army used the U.S.-prepared hit list against the Indonesian communist party in 1965-66. Among the documents cited is a 1966 airgram to Washington sent by U.S. ambassador Marshall Green stating that a list from the Embassy identifying top communist leaders was being used by the Indonesian security authorities in their extermination campaign.

For example, the US Embassy reported on November 13,1965 that information sent to Suharto resulted in the killing of between 50 to 100 PKI members every night in East and Central Java. The Embassy admitted in an April 15, 1966 airgram to Washington: “We frankly do not know whether the real figure for the PKI killed is closer to 100,000 or 1,000,000.”4

The Indonesian military became the instrument of another counter revolutionary offensive in 1975 when it invaded East Timor. On September 7,1975, just 24 hours after the highest officials of the United States government, President Gerald Ford and Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, had been in Djakarta on a state visit, 30,000 Indonesian troops landed in East Timor. Napalm, phosphorus bombs and chemical defoliants were delivered from US supplied planes and helicopters, resulting in the killing of tens of thousands of people, and the conflict continues to simmer.5

Vietnam: (1954-1965)

President Harry Truman began granting material aid to the French colonial forces in Indochina as early s 1946, and the aid was dramatically increased after the successful Chinese revolution in 1949 and the start of the “hot” Korean War in June 1950. By the time of the French army was defeated in 1954, the U.S. was paying nearly 80 percent of the French military expenditures and providing extensive air and logistical support.

The unilateral U.S. military intervention in Vietnam began in 1954, immediately following the humiliating French defeat in early May 1954. The July 21, 1954 Geneva Agreement concluded the French war against the Vietnamese and promised them a unifying election, mandated for July 1956. The U.S. government knew that fair elections would, in effect, ensure a genuine democratic victory for revered Communist leader Ho Chi Minh. This was unacceptable. In June 1954, prior to the signing of the historic Geneva agreement, the U.S. began CIA-directed internal sabotage operations against the Vietnamese while setting up the puppet Ngo Dinh Diem (brought to Vietnam from the U.S.) as “our” political leader. No electrons were ever held. This set the stage for yet another war for Vietnamese independence — this time against U.S. forces and their South Vietnamese puppets.

The significance of U.S. intentions to interfere with independence movements in Asia cannot be underestimated. U.S. National Security Council documents from 1956 declared that our national security would be endangered by communist domination of mainland Southeast Asia. Secret military plans stated that nuclear weapons will be used in general war and even in military operations short of general war. By March 1961, the Pentagon brass had recommended sending 60,000 soldiers to western Laos supported by air power that would include, if necessary, nuclear weapons, to assure that the Royal Laotian government would prevail against the popular insurgency being waged against it. For the next ten years the U.S. unleashed forces that caused (and continue to cause ) an incomprehensible amount of devastation in Vietnam and the rest of Southeast Asia.

Eight million tons of bombs (four times the amount used by the U.S. in all of World War II) were dropped indiscriminately, leaving destruction which, if laid crater to crater, would cover an area the size of the state of Maine. Eighty percent of the bombs fell on rural areas rather than military targets, leaving ten million craters. Nearly 400,000 tons of napalm was dropped on Vietnamese villages. There was no pretense of distinguishing between combatants and civilians.

The callous designation of as much as three-fourths of South Vietnam as a “free fire zone” justified the murder of virtually anyone in thousands of villages in those vast areas. At the time, Defense Secretary Robert S. McNamara cited a 1967 memo in which he estimated the number of Vietnamese civilians killed or seriously injured by U.S. forces at 1000 per week. The CIA=s Phoenix program alone killed as many as 70,000 civilians who were suspected of being part of the political leadership of the Viet Cong in the south.

There was a historically unprecedented level of chemical warfare in Vietnam, including the indiscriminate spraying of nearly 20 million gallons of defoliants on one-seventh the area of South Vietnam. The vestigial effects of chemical warfare poisoning continue to plague the health of adult Vietnamese (and ex-GIs) while causing escalated birth defects. Samples of soil, water, food and body fat of Vietnamese citizens continue to reveal dangerously elevated levels of dioxin to the present day.

Today, Vietnamese officials estimate the continued dangerous presence of 3.5 million landmines left from the war as well as 300,000 tons of unexploded ordnance. Tragically, these hidden remnants of war continue to explode when farmers plow their fields or children play in their neighborhoods, killing thousands each year. The Vietnamese report 40,000 people killed since 1975 by landmines and buried bombs. That means that each day, 4 or 5 Vietnamese civilians are killed day by U.S. ordnance.

The U.S. and its allies killed as many as 5 million Southeast Asian citizens during the active war years. The numbers of dead in Laos and Cambodia remain uncounted, but as of 1971, a congressional Research Service report prepared for the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee indicated that over one million Laotians had been killed, wounded, or turned into refugees, with the figure for Cambodia estimated two million. More than a half million “secret” US bombing missions over Laos, begun in late 1964, devastated populations of ancient cultures there. Estimates indicate that around 230,000 tons of bombs were dropped over northern Laos in 1968 and 1969 alone. Increasing numbers of U.S. military personnel were added to the ground forces in Laos during 1961, preparing for major military operations to come.

The “secret” bombing of Cambodia began in March 1969, and an outright land invasion of Cambodia was conducted from late April 1970 through the end of June, causing thousand of casualties. These raging U.S. covert wars did not cease until August 14, 1973, by which time countless additional casualties were inflicted. When the bombing in Cambodia finally ceased, the U.S. Air Force had officially recorded the use of nearly 260,000 tons of bombs there. The total tonnage of bombs dropped in Laos over eight and a half years exceeded two million.

The consensus today is that more than 3 million Vietnamese were killed, with 300,000 additional missing in action and presumed dead. In the process the U.S. lost nearly 59,000 of her own men and women, with about 2,000 additional missing, while combatants from four U.S. allies lost over 6,000 more. The South Vietnamese military accounted for nearly 225,000 dead. All of this carnage was justified in order to destroy the basic rights and capacity of the Vietnamese to construct their own independent, sovereign society. None of the victims deserved to die in such a war. Vietnamese, Laotians, Cambodians, and U.S. military “grunts” were all victims.

All of these corpses were created to perpetuate an incredible lie and to serve a “cause” that had been concocted by white male plutocrats in Washington, many of whom possessed Ph.Ds from prestigious universities. Like most of their predecessors throughout U.S. history, these politicians and their appointees, along with their profit-hungry arms makers/dealers, desired to assure the destruction of people’s democratic movements in East Asia that threatened the virtually unlimited American hegemony over markets, resources, and the profits to be derived therefrom. But never did a small country suffer so much from an imperial nation as the Vietnamese did from the United States.

Iraq:1991-2001

The royal family in Kuwait was used by the United States government to justify a massive assault on Iraq in order to establish permanent dominion over the Gulf. The Gulf War was begun not to protect Kuwait but to establish US power over the region and its oil.6 In 1990, General Schwarzkopf had testified before the Senate that it was essential for the U.S. to increase its military presence in the Gulf in order to protect Saudi Arabia. However, satellite photos showed no Iraqi troops near the Saudi Border.

After Iraq announced that it was going to annex Kuwait, the United States began its air attacks on Iraq. For 42 days the US sent in 2000 sorties a day. By February 13,1991, 1,500 Iraqi citizens had been killed. President George Bush ordered the destruction of facilities essential to civilian life and economic production.

The Red Crescent Society of Jordan announced at the end of the war that 113,00 civilians were dead and sixty percent were women and children. Some of the worst devastation was wrought by the US military’s use of Depleted Uranium (DU) on battlefields and in towns and cities across Iraq. It left a legacy of radioactive debris which has resulted in serious environmental contamination and health problems, particularly among Iraqi children. Child mortality rates have risen by 380 percent. Between August 1990 and August 1997 some 1.2 million children in Iraq died due to environmental devastation and the harsh economic sanctions imposed in 1991. Not satisfied with such havoc, the U.S. and Britain have recently sought to tighten the blockade against Iraq by imposing so-called :”smart sanctions.” This would continue the aggression against northern and southern Iraq and lead to the deaths of more women, children and elderly.

Yugoslavia: (1991-1999)

The United States and Germany prepared plans for the dismemberment of Yugoslavia in the late 1980’s and have since reconfigured Yugoslavia into mini-states, with only Serbia and Montenegro remaining in the Yugoslav federation, a situation which has opened the way to the re-colonization of the Balkans.

In 1991, the European Community, with US involvement, organized a conference on Yugoslavia that called for the separation, sovereignty and independence of the republics of Yugoslavia. President George Bush’s administration passed the 1991 Foreign Operations Act, which provided aid to the individual republics, but cut off all aid to Belgrade, the capitol of Yugoslavia. This stimulated the eventual secession of Slovenia, Croatia, Macedonia and Bosnia-Herzegovina. With secession came civil wars. Ethnic Serbs living in Croatia had been loyal to that Yugoslav republic, but great power meddling now forced them to defend their region in Croatia known as Krajina. The U.S. covertly provided arms, training, advisors, satellite intelligence and air power to the Croats in “Operation Storm” directed against the helpless Serbs in Krajina. When the bombing began, the Krajina Serbs fled to Belgrade and Bosnia. Approximately 250,000 Serbs were thus ethnically cleansed from the Krajina and all evidence of Serb habitation was systematically destroyed. Civilians were executed, livestock slaughtered and houses were burnt to the ground.7

To avoid a similar human catastrophe in Bosnia/Herzegovina, Bosnian Serbs consolidated Serb-owned lands, an area constituting about two thirds of Bosnia/Herzegovina. Germany and the U.S. quickly aided the military alliance of Bosnian Muslims and Croats against the Serbs, and , supported by American bombing and regular army forces from Croatia, the Muslim/Croat alliance soon swept the Serbs from the majority of Bosnia/Herzegovina. As in the Krajina, the conflict forced ethnic Serbs off of their lands, creating one hundred thousand Serb refugees.

Under the U.S.-brokered Dayton Agreement, Bosnia/Herzegovina was divided into two parts, a Muslim-Croat Federation and Republica Srpska. The central government today is controlled by US/NATO forces, the IMF, and international NGOs. With no history of independence, Bosnia/Herzegovina=s economic assets have been taken over by foreign investors who now own their energy facilities, water, telecommunication, media and transportation.

The effects of the Bosnian civil war on the city of Srebrenica were reported extensively in the western media. Reports claimed that 7,414 Bosnian Muslims were executed by the Serbian army. After years of searching, digging and extensive investigations, only seventy bodies were found, but the original charges of genocide are still circulated in the media.

Kosovo, an autonomous region of Serbia, is the site of the most recent, and perhaps most disastrous, U.S. military intervention. Kosovo=s problems began after World War II when immigrants from Albania flooded into the region, sparking political confrontation between Albanians and Serbs. escalated into military conflict. The “Kosovo Liberation Army, an Albanian terrorist/separatist group, escalated tensions by directing their violence against not only Serbian civilians, but Albanian who refused to join their cause. As the war intensified, a United Nations team of observers in the Kosovo village of Racak found 44 Albanian bodies. The Serbs identified them as KLA fighters killed during one of the now frequent gun battles with police. William Walker, a US diplomat, who had earlier acted as an apologist for the death squads in El Salvador, led a group of journalists to view the bodies, and their subsequent claims of Serb war crimes made world-wide headlines.8

President Clinton used this event to bring delegates form the contending forces in Bosnia to Rambouillet, and the proposed Ramboullet Accords served as a prelude to U.S. intervention in Kosovo. The accords, if accepted, would have allowed NATO forces complete access to all of Yugoslavia, a virtual foreign occupation, with all associated costs to be borne by the Yugoslav government. As the Ramboullet negotiations began to stall, U.S. Secretary of State Madeline Albright ordered the bombing of Yugoslavia to begin.

On March 16, 1999, twenty three thousand missiles and bombs were dropped on a country of eleven million people. Thirty five thousand cluster bombs, graphite bombs and 31,000 rounds of depleted uranium weapons were used, the latter scattering radioactive waste throughout the Yugoslav countryside.

The 78 day bombing of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia targeted schools, hospitals, farms, bridges, roads communication centers, and waterways. Because a large number of chemical plants and oil refineries bombed by US/NATO planes were located on the banks of the Danube river, the bombing of these industrial sites polluted the Danube, a source of drinking water for ten million people in the region. The environmental damage done to the soil, water and air of Yugoslavia soon spread to Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, Macedonia, Greece and Italy. Countries like Russia, Ukraine and Georgia, which border on the Black Sea, into which the Danube empties, also continue to face health hazards.

Afghanistan:(1979-2001)

“The Bush-Afghan war calls up memories of the Vietnam War in both actions and rhetoric, the massive use of superior arms heavily impacting civilians, deliberate food deprivation, wholesale terror allegedly combating ‘terrorism’, but always sincere regrets for collateral damages.”9

The U.S. war in Afghanistan began in 1979, ostensibly as a campaign to oust the ruling Taliban and apprehend the alleged terrorist Osama Bin Laden, who was assumed to be hiding in Afghanistan. Ironically, the Taliban had received billions of dollars worth of weapons from the CIA to help it overthrow a progressive socialist government in Afghanistan, and Bin Laden regarded himself as an important CIA asset. Indeed, the CIA had been deeply involved in Afghanistan even before the Soviet Union intervened there in 1979 to defend the revolutionary government.

Since the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center in New York City, the U.S. has waged a merciless war against the Afghan people, using chemical, biological and depleted uranium (DU) weapons. The use of DU continues to spread radiation throughout large parts of Afghanistan and will affect tens of thousands of people in generations to come, causing lung cancer, leukemia and birth defects. DU was also used against Iraq and Yugoslavia, where the frequency of cancer has tripled.

The bombing of the Afghan population has forced thousands of civilians to flee to Pakistan and Iran, and seven to eight million civilians are facing starvation. UNICEF spokesman Eric Larlcke has stated, “As many as 100,000 more children will die in Afghanistan this winter unless food reaches them in sufficient quantities in the next six weeks.”10

The racist underpinnings of the American world-view allows the American press and its political leaders to be silent on the mass killing of Third World children. Donald Rumsfeld, the U.S. Secretary of Defense, has stated that the U.S. is not looking to negotiate peace with the Taliban and Al-Quida in Afghanistan. There is a clear indifference to the daily carnage in Afghanistan, where sixty percent of the casualties are women and children. Human rights organizations have expressed concern over reports of large-scale executions of would-be Taliban defectors in the city of Kunduz, and the United Nations has echoed human rights groups in demanding an investigation into the slaughter of prisoners at the Qala-i-Jhangi fort near Mazar-i-Sharif. With more than 500 people dead and the fort littered with bodies, allegations of war crimes against the U.S. and UK for ignoring the Geneva Convention on the treatment of prisoners of war have led the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Mary Robinson, to call for an urgent inquiry.

“Once we recognize the pattern of activity designed to simultaneously consolidate control over Middle Eastern and South Asian oil and contain and colonize the former Soviet Union, Afghanistan is exactly where they need to go to pursue that agenda.”11

In his book The Grand Chessboard, Zbigniew Brezezinski writes that the Eurasian Balkans are a potential economic prize which hold an enormous concentration of natural gas and oil and important minerals as well as gold.

Brezezinski declares that the Central Asian region and the Caspian Sea basin are “known to contain reserves of natural gas and oil that dwarf those of Kuwait, the Gulf of Mexico, or the North Sea.”12 Afghanistan will serve as a base of operations to begin the control over the South Asian Republic in order to build a pipeline through Turkmenistan, Afghanistan and Pakistan to deliver petroleum to the Asian market. This pipeline will serve as a bonanza of wealth for the US oil companies.

Conclusion:

An examination of the American conduct of its wars since World War II shows the US to be in violation of the Nuremberg Principles, the 1949 Geneva Convention relating to protection of civilian prisoners of war, the wounded and sick, and the amended Nuremberg Principles as formulated by the International Law Commission in 1950 proscribing war crimes and crimes against humanity. The massive murder and destruction of civilian infrastructure through the use of biological, chemical and depleted uranium weapons violates not only international laws but the moral and humanitarian standards expected in modern civilization.

Notes

1. Ward Churchill, A Little Matter of Genocide: Holocaust and Denial in the Americas, 1942 to the Present. San Francisco: City Lights Books, 1977, p. 371.

2. William Blum, Killing Hope: US Military and CIA Intervention Since World War II, Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 1995, p. 17.

3. Gabriel Kollo, AWar Crimes and the Nature of the Vietnam War, Bertrand Russell Foundation, http:www.homeusers.prestel.co.uk/littleton/br7006gk.htm

4. George Washington University’s National Security Archive, July 27, 2001, www.Narchives.org

5. Deirdre Griswold, Indonesia: the Second Greatest Crime of the Century, 2d edition. New York: World View Publishers, 1979, p. vii.

6. Ramsey Clark, The Fire This Time: U.S. War Crimes in the Gulf. New York: Thunder’s Mouth Press, 1992, p. 3.

7. Scott Taylor, INAT: Images of Serbia and the Kosovo Conflict. OttAwa, Canada: Espirit de Corps Books, 2000, p. 15.

8. Michael Parenti, To Kill a Nation: The Attack on Yugoslavia. New York: Verso, 2000, p. 106.

9. Edward Herman, A Genocide as Collateral Damage, but with Sincere Regrets, Centre for Research on Globalisation (CRG) at http://globalresearch.ca , 2001

10. 100,000 Afghan Children Could Die This Winter, The Times of India, October 16, 2001.

11. Stan Goff, A September 11th Analysis, October 27, 2001, www.maisonneuvepress.com .

12. Zbigniew Brzezinski, The Grand Chessboard: American Primacy and Its Geostrategic Imperative, New York: Harper

 

Lenora Foerstel  is author of War, Lies & Videotape: How media monopoly stifles truth , 

Brian Willson  is a Vietnam war veteran, peace activist and author. Brian Willson has carefully documented the balance sheet of US government war crimes in Vietnam and Korea 

The original source of this article is Global Research

Copyright © Lenora Foerstel and Brian S. WillsonGlobal Research, 2017


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America Has Been At War 93% of the Time – 222 Out of 239 Years – Since 1776

Posted on February 20, 2015 by WashingtonsBlog

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The U.S. Has Only Been At Peace For 21 Years Total Since Its Birth

In 2011, Danios wrote:

 Below, I have reproduced a year-by-year timeline of America’s wars, which reveals something quite interesting: since the United States was founded in 1776, she has been at war during 214 out of her 235 calendar years of existence.  In other words, there were only 21 calendar years in which the U.S. did not wage any wars.

To put this in perspective:

* Pick any year since 1776 and there is about a 91% chance that America was involved in some war during that calendar year.

* No U.S. president truly qualifies as a peacetime president.  Instead, all U.S. presidents can technically be considered “war presidents.”

* The U.S. has never gone a decade without war.

* The only time the U.S. went five years without war (1935-40) was during the isolationist period of the Great Depression.

*  *  *

Here is a graphic depiction of U.S. wars:

And here is the year-by-year timeline of America’s major wars:

 

Year-by-year Timeline of America’s Major Wars (1776-2011)

1776 – American Revolutionary War, Chickamagua Wars, Second Cherokee War, Pennamite-Yankee War

1777 – American Revolutionary War, Chickamauga Wars, Second Cherokee War, Pennamite-Yankee War

1778 – American Revolutionary War, Chickamauga Wars, Pennamite-Yankee War

1779 – American Revolutionary War, Chickamauga Wars, Pennamite-Yankee War

1780 – American Revolutionary War, Chickamauga Wars, Pennamite-Yankee War

1781 – American Revolutionary War, Chickamauga Wars, Pennamite-Yankee War

1782 – American Revolutionary War, Chickamauga Wars, Pennamite-Yankee War

1783 – American Revolutionary War, Chickamauga Wars, Pennamite-Yankee War

1784 – Chickamauga Wars, Pennamite-Yankee War, Oconee War

1785 – Chickamauga Wars, Northwest Indian War

1786 – Chickamauga Wars, Northwest Indian War

1787 – Chickamauga Wars, Northwest Indian War

1788 – Chickamauga Wars, Northwest Indian War

1789 – Chickamauga Wars, Northwest Indian War

1790 – Chickamauga Wars, Northwest Indian War

1791 – Chickamauga Wars, Northwest Indian War

1792 – Chickamauga Wars, Northwest Indian War

1793 – Chickamauga Wars, Northwest Indian War

1794 – Chickamauga Wars, Northwest Indian War

1795 – Northwest Indian War

1796 – No major war

1797 – No major war

1798 – Quasi-War

1799 – Quasi-War

1800 – Quasi-War

1801 – First Barbary War

1802 – First Barbary War

1803 – First Barbary War

1804 – First Barbary War

1805 – First Barbary War

1806 – Sabine Expedition

1807 – No major war

1808 – No major war

1809 – No major war

1810 – U.S. occupies Spanish-held West Florida

1811 – Tecumseh’s War

1812 – War of 1812, Tecumseh’s War, Seminole Wars, U.S. occupies Spanish-held Amelia Island and other parts of East Florida

1813 – War of 1812, Tecumseh’s War, Peoria War, Creek War, U.S. expands its territory in West Florida

1814 – War of 1812, Creek War, U.S. expands its territory in Florida, Anti-piracy war

1815 – War of 1812, Second Barbary War, Anti-piracy war

1816 – First Seminole War, Anti-piracy war

1817 – First Seminole War, Anti-piracy war

1818 – First Seminole War, Anti-piracy war

1819 – Yellowstone Expedition, Anti-piracy war

1820 – Yellowstone Expedition, Anti-piracy war

1821 – Anti-piracy war (see note above)

1822 – Anti-piracy war (see note above)

1823 – Anti-piracy war, Arikara War

1824 – Anti-piracy war

1825 – Yellowstone Expedition, Anti-piracy war

1826 – No major war

1827 – Winnebago War

1828 – No major war

1829 – No major war

1830 – No major war 

1831 – Sac and Fox Indian War

1832 – Black Hawk War

1833 – Cherokee Indian War

1834 – Cherokee Indian War, Pawnee Indian Territory Campaign

1835 – Cherokee Indian War, Seminole Wars, Second Creek War

1836 – Cherokee Indian War, Seminole Wars, Second Creek War, Missouri-Iowa Border War

1837 – Cherokee Indian War, Seminole Wars, Second Creek War, Osage Indian War, Buckshot War

1838 – Cherokee Indian War, Seminole Wars, Buckshot War, Heatherly Indian War

1839 – Cherokee Indian War, Seminole Wars

1840 – Seminole Wars, U.S. naval forces invade Fiji Islands

1841 – Seminole Wars, U.S. naval forces invade McKean Island, Gilbert Islands, and Samoa

1842 – Seminole Wars

1843 – U.S. forces clash with Chinese, U.S. troops invade African coast

1844 – Texas-Indian Wars

1845 – Texas-Indian Wars

1846 – Mexican-American War, Texas-Indian Wars

1847 – Mexican-American War, Texas-Indian Wars

1848 – Mexican-American War, Texas-Indian Wars, Cayuse War

1849 – Texas-Indian Wars, Cayuse War, Southwest Indian Wars, Navajo Wars, Skirmish between 1st Cavalry and Indians

1850 – Texas-Indian Wars, Cayuse War, Southwest Indian Wars, Navajo Wars, Yuma War, California Indian Wars, Pitt River Expedition

1851 – Texas-Indian Wars, Cayuse War, Southwest Indian Wars, Navajo Wars, Apache Wars, Yuma War, Utah Indian Wars, California Indian Wars

1852 – Texas-Indian Wars, Cayuse War, Southwest Indian Wars, Navajo Wars, Yuma War, Utah Indian Wars, California Indian Wars

1853 – Texas-Indian Wars, Cayuse War, Southwest Indian Wars, Navajo Wars, Yuma War, Utah Indian Wars, Walker War, California Indian Wars

1854 – Texas-Indian Wars, Cayuse War, Southwest Indian Wars, Navajo Wars, Apache Wars, California Indian Wars, Skirmish between 1st Cavalry and Indians

1855 – Seminole Wars, Texas-Indian Wars, Cayuse War, Southwest Indian Wars, Navajo Wars, Apache Wars, California Indian Wars, Yakima War, Winnas Expedition, Klickitat War, Puget Sound War, Rogue River Wars, U.S. forces invade Fiji Islands and Uruguay

1856 – Seminole Wars, Texas-Indian Wars, Southwest Indian Wars, Navajo Wars, California Indian Wars, Puget Sound War, Rogue River Wars, Tintic War

1857 – Seminole Wars, Texas-Indian Wars, Southwest Indian Wars, Navajo Wars, California Indian Wars, Utah War, Conflict in Nicaragua

1858 – Seminole Wars, Texas-Indian Wars, Southwest Indian Wars, Navajo Wars, Mohave War, California Indian Wars, Spokane-Coeur d’Alene-Paloos War, Utah War, U.S. forces invade Fiji Islands and Uruguay

1859 Texas-Indian Wars, Southwest Indian Wars, Navajo Wars, California Indian Wars, Pecos Expedition, Antelope Hills Expedition, Bear River Expedition, John Brown’s raid, U.S. forces launch attack against Paraguay, U.S. forces invade Mexico

1860 – Texas-Indian Wars, Southwest Indian Wars, Navajo Wars, Apache Wars, California Indian Wars, Paiute War, Kiowa-Comanche War

1861 – American Civil War, Texas-Indian Wars, Southwest Indian Wars, Navajo Wars, Apache Wars, California Indian Wars, Cheyenne Campaign

1862 – American Civil War, Texas-Indian Wars, Southwest Indian Wars, Navajo Wars, Apache Wars, California Indian Wars, Cheyenne Campaign, Dakota War of 1862,

1863 – American Civil War, Texas-Indian Wars, Southwest Indian Wars, Navajo Wars, Apache Wars, California Indian Wars, Cheyenne Campaign, Colorado War, Goshute War

1864 – American Civil War, Texas-Indian Wars, Navajo Wars, Apache Wars, California Indian Wars, Cheyenne Campaign, Colorado War, Snake War

1865 – American Civil War, Texas-Indian Wars, Navajo Wars, Apache Wars, California Indian Wars, Colorado War, Snake War, Utah’s Black Hawk War

1866 – Texas-Indian Wars, Navajo Wars, Apache Wars, California Indian Wars, Skirmish between 1st Cavalry and Indians, Snake War, Utah’s Black Hawk War, Red Cloud’s War, Franklin County War, U.S. invades Mexico, Conflict with China

1867 – Texas-Indian Wars, Long Walk of the Navajo, Apache Wars, Skirmish between 1st Cavalry and Indians, Snake War, Utah’s Black Hawk War, Red Cloud’s War, Comanche Wars, Franklin County War, U.S. troops occupy Nicaragua and attack Taiwan

1868 – Texas-Indian Wars, Long Walk of the Navajo, Apache Wars, Skirmish between 1st Cavalry and Indians, Snake War, Utah’s Black Hawk War, Red Cloud’s War, Comanche Wars, Battle of Washita River, Franklin County War

1869 – Texas-Indian Wars, Apache Wars, Skirmish between 1st Cavalry and Indians, Utah’s Black Hawk War, Comanche Wars, Franklin County War

1870 – Texas-Indian Wars, Apache Wars, Skirmish between 1st Cavalry and Indians, Utah’s Black Hawk War, Comanche Wars, Franklin County War

1871 – Texas-Indian Wars, Apache Wars, Skirmish between 1st Cavalry and Indians, Utah’s Black Hawk War, Comanche Wars, Franklin County War, Kingsley Cave Massacre, U.S. forces invade Korea

1872 – Texas-Indian Wars, Apache Wars, Utah’s Black Hawk War, Comanche Wars, Modoc War, Franklin County War

1873 – Texas-Indian Wars, Comanche Wars, Modoc War, Apache Wars, Cypress Hills Massacre, U.S. forces invade Mexico

1874 – Texas-Indian Wars, Comanche Wars, Red River War, Mason County War, U.S. forces invade Mexico

1875 – Conflict in Mexico, Texas-Indian Wars, Comanche Wars, Eastern Nevada, Mason County War, Colfax County War, U.S. forces invade Mexico

1876 – Texas-Indian Wars, Black Hills War, Mason County War, U.S. forces invade Mexico

1877 – Texas-Indian Wars, Skirmish between 1st Cavalry and Indians, Black Hills War, Nez Perce War, Mason County War, Lincoln County War, San Elizario Salt War, U.S. forces invade Mexico

1878 – Paiute Indian conflict, Bannock War, Cheyenne War, Lincoln County War, U.S. forces invade Mexico

1879 – Cheyenne War, Sheepeater Indian War, White River War, U.S. forces invade Mexico

1880 – U.S. forces invade Mexico

1881 – U.S. forces invade Mexico

1882 – U.S. forces invade Mexico

1883 – U.S. forces invade Mexico

1884 – U.S. forces invade Mexico

1885 – Apache Wars, Eastern Nevada Expedition, U.S. forces invade Mexico

1886 – Apache Wars, Pleasant Valley War, U.S. forces invade Mexico

1887 – U.S. forces invade Mexico

1888 – U.S. show of force against Haiti, U.S. forces invade Mexico

1889 – U.S. forces invade Mexico

1890 – Sioux Indian War, Skirmish between 1st Cavalry and Indians, Ghost Dance War, Wounded Knee, U.S. forces invade Mexico

1891 – Sioux Indian War, Ghost Dance War, U.S. forces invade Mexico

1892 – Johnson County War, U.S. forces invade Mexico

1893 – U.S. forces invade Mexico and Hawaii

1894 – U.S. forces invade Mexico

1895 – U.S. forces invade Mexico, Bannock Indian Disturbances

1896 – U.S. forces invade Mexico

1897 – No major war

1898 – Spanish-American War, Battle of Leech Lake, Chippewa Indian Disturbances

1899 – Philippine-American War, Banana Wars

1900 – Philippine-American War, Banana Wars

1901 – Philippine-American War, Banana Wars

1902 – Philippine-American War, Banana Wars

1903 – Philippine-American War, Banana Wars

1904 – Philippine-American War, Banana Wars

1905 – Philippine-American War, Banana Wars

1906 – Philippine-American War, Banana Wars

1907 – Philippine-American War, Banana Wars

1908 – Philippine-American War, Banana Wars

1909 – Philippine-American War, Banana Wars

1910 – Philippine-American War, Banana Wars

1911 – Philippine-American War, Banana Wars

1912 – Philippine-American War, Banana Wars

1913 – Philippine-American War, Banana Wars, New Mexico Navajo War

1914 – Banana Wars, U.S. invades Mexico

1915 – Banana Wars, U.S. invades Mexico, Colorado Paiute War

1916 – Banana Wars, U.S. invades Mexico

1917 – Banana Wars, World War I, U.S. invades Mexico

1918 – Banana Wars, World War I, U.S invades Mexico

1919 – Banana Wars, U.S. invades Mexico

1920 – Banana Wars

1921 – Banana Wars

1922 – Banana Wars

1923 – Banana Wars, Posey War

1924 – Banana Wars

1925 – Banana Wars

1926 – Banana Wars

1927 – Banana Wars

1928 – Banana Wars

1930 – Banana Wars

1931 – Banana Wars

1932 – Banana Wars

1933 – Banana Wars

1934 – Banana Wars

1935 – No major war

1936 – No major war

1937 – No major war

1938 – No major war

1939 – No major war

1940 – No major war

1941 – World War II

1942 – World War II

1943 – Wold War II

1944 – World War II

1945 – World War II

1946 – Cold War (U.S. occupies the Philippines and South Korea)

1947 – Cold War (U.S. occupies South Korea, U.S. forces land in Greece to fight Communists)

1948 – Cold War (U.S. forces aid Chinese Nationalist Party against Communists)

1949 – Cold War (U.S. forces aid Chinese Nationalist Party against Communists)

1950 – Korean War, Jayuga Uprising

1951 – Korean War

1952 – Korean War

1953 – Korean War

1954 – Covert War in Guatemala

1955 – Vietnam War

1956 – Vietnam War

1957 – Vietnam War

1958 – Vietnam War

1959 – Vietnam War, Conflict in Haiti

1960 – Vietam War

1961 – Vietnam War

1962 – Vietnam War, Cold War (Cuban Missile Crisis; U.S. marines fight Communists in Thailand)

1963 – Vietnam War

1964 – Vietnam War

1965 – Vietnam War, U.S. occupation of Dominican Republic

1966 – Vietnam War, U.S. occupation of Dominican Republic

1967 – Vietnam War

1968 – Vietnam War

1969 – Vietnam War

1970 – Vietnam War

1971 – Vietnam War

1972 – Vietnam War

1973 – Vietnam War, U.S. aids Israel in Yom Kippur War

1974 – Vietnam War

1975 – Vietnam War

1976 – No major war

1977 – No major war

1978 – No major war

1979 – Cold War (CIA proxy war in Afghanistan)

1980 – Cold War (CIA proxy war in Afghanistan)

1981 – Cold War (CIA proxy war in Afghanistan and Nicaragua), First Gulf of Sidra Incident

1982 – Cold War (CIA proxy war in Afghanistan and Nicaragua), Conflict in Lebanon

1983 – Cold War (Invasion of Grenada, CIA proxy war in Afghanistan and Nicaragua), Conflict in Lebanon

1984 – Cold War (CIA proxy war in Afghanistan and Nicaragua), Conflict in Persian Gulf

1985 – Cold War (CIA proxy war in Afghanistan and Nicaragua)

1986 – Cold War (CIA proxy war in Afghanistan and Nicaragua)

1987 – Conflict in Persian Gulf

1988 – Conflict in Persian Gulf, U.S. occupation of Panama

1989 – Second Gulf of Sidra Incident, U.S. occupation of Panama, Conflict in Philippines

1990 – First Gulf War, U.S. occupation of Panama

1991 – First Gulf War

1992 – Conflict in Iraq

1993 – Conflict in Iraq

1994 – Conflict in Iraq, U.S. invades Haiti

1995 – Conflict in Iraq, U.S. invades Haiti, NATO bombing of Bosnia and Herzegovina

1996 – Conflict in Iraq

1997 – No major war

1998 – Bombing of Iraq, Missile strikes against Afghanistan and Sudan

1999 – Kosovo War

2000 – No major war

2001 – War on Terror in Afghanistan

2002 – War on Terror in Afghanistan and Yemen

2003 – War on Terror in Afghanistan, and Iraq

2004 – War on Terror in Afghanistan, Iraq, Pakistan, and Yemen

2005 – War on Terror in Afghanistan, Iraq, Pakistan, and Yemen

2006 – War on Terror in Afghanistan, Iraq, Pakistan, and Yemen

2007 – War on Terror in Afghanistan, Iraq, Pakistan, Somalia, and Yemen

2008 – War on Terror in Afghanistan, Iraq, Pakistan, and Yemen

2009 – War on Terror in Afghanistan, Iraq, Pakistan, and Yemen

2010 – War on Terror in Afghanistan, Iraq, Pakistan, and Yemen

2011 – War on Terror in Afghanistan, Iraq, Pakistan, Somalia, and Yemen; Conflict in Libya (Libyan Civil War)

In most of these wars, the U.S. was on the offense. Danios admits that some of the wars were defensive.   However, Danios also leaves out covert CIA operations and other acts which could be considered war.

Let’s update what’s happened since 2011:

2012 – War on Terror in Afghanistan, Iraq, Somalia, Syria and Yemen

2013 – War on Terror in Afghanistan, Iraq, Somalia, Syria and Yemen

2014 – War on Terror in Afghanistan, Iraq, Somalia, Syria and Yemen; Civil War in Ukraine

2015 – War on Terror in Somalia, Somalia, Syria and Yemen; Civil War in Ukraine

So we can add 4 more years of war. That means that for 222 out of 239 years – or 93% of the time – America has been at war. (We can quibble with the exact numbers, but the high percentage of time that America has been at war is clear and unmistakable.)

Indeed, most of the military operations launched since World War II have been launched by the U.S.

And American military spending dwarfs the rest of the world put together.

No wonder polls show that the world believes America is the number 1 threat to peace.

This entry was posted in Politics / World News. Bookmark the permalink


http://www.washingtonsblog.com/2015/02/america-war-93-time-222-239-years-since-1776.html


List of countries the USA has bombed since the end of World War II
http://www.globalresearch.ca/list-of-countries-the-usa-has-bombed-since-the-end-of-world-war-ii/24626
Western Democracy: A Farce And A Sham | Global Research
http://www.globalresearch.ca/western-democracy-a-farce-and-a-sham/27447

 

Every day that passes adds to the fraudulent image of what is called Western democracy.

Consider that the entire Western world is outraged that the Greek prime minister announced that he is going to permit the Greek people to decide their own fate instead of having it decided for them by a handful of banksters, politicians, and bureaucrats living it up at taxpayer expense at “talks” in the French resort of Cannes on the Mediterranean.

The Greek economy is facing its fourth year of decline and lacks the revenues to service its national debt held by private European banks. The banks don’t want to lose any money, so a handful of power brokers reached an agreement with representatives of the Greek government to write off some of the debt in exchange for EU capital subsidies to be financed by inflicting severe austerity on the Greek population. Wages, salaries, pensions and medical care are being cut while the rate of unemployment rises to depression levels. Government employees are laid off. Valuable public properties are to be sold to private parties for pennies on the dollar. In short, Greece is to be looted.

Large numbers of Greeks have been in the streets protesting the austerity policy and have reached the point of anger of throwing Molotov cocktails at the police. Greece is disintegrating politically. The Greek people sense that the EU “bailout” is not bailing out Greece. It is bailing out the French, Dutch, and German banks at the expense of the Greek people.

The Greek prime minister, watching his party’s support and power crumble, announced that he would let the people decide in a referendum. After all, allegedly that’s what democracies do. But it turns out that “we have freedom and democracy” is not supposed to be taken literally. It is merely a propagandistic slogan behind which people are ruled through back-room deals decided by powerful private interests.

The Greek prime minister’s announcement that he would put the back-room bailout deal to a referendum shocked the EU hierarchy, Washington, and investors. Who does this Greek guy think he is permitting the people, who bear the cost of the deal, to have a say in it? Who let this Greek guy out of his cage? This is not the way democracies are ruled.

The EU power brokers are outraged over the Greek prime minister’s departure from normal procedure. But the Greek PM is relying on the Greek people to approve the deal, and not without reason.

The Greek people have been brainwashed for decades as to the importance of “being part of Europe.” That means being a member of the European Union. When the Greeks realize that voting down the bailout of the banksters means being thrown out of the European Union, which is what they will learn between now and the referendum, they will vote for the back room deal.

Polls already indicate this. A poll for a Greek newspaper indicates that whereas 46% oppose the bailout, 70% favor staying in the EU, which the Greeks see as a life or death issue.

If this poll is a reliable indicator, the Greek PM has made a brilliant political decision. The Greek people will vote in favor of what they have been protesting violently in the streets. As the Greek people will do themselves in, the politicians are off the hook. This is the bet that the Greek PM has placed.

Whatever the outcome, keep in mind that the entire Western political and investor world was shocked that a politician, instead of simply imposing a back room deal, said he would let the people decide. Letting the people decide is a no-no in Western democracies.

If you need more evidence of this mythical creature called “Western democracy,” consider that Western governments are no longer accountable to law. Contrast, for example, the sexual harassment charges that are plaguing US presidential candidate Herman Cain’s campaign with the pass given to high government officials who clearly violated statutory law.

What follows is not a defense of Cain. I take no position on the charges. The real point is different. In America the only thing that can ruin a politician is his interest in sex. A politician, for example, George W. Bush, Dick Cheney, B. Omama, cannot be ruined by violating United States and international law or by treating the US Constitution as a “mere scrap of paper.” Bush and Cheney can take America to wars based entirely on lies and orchestrated deceptions. They can commit war crimes, murdering large numbers of civilians in the cause of “the war on terror,” itself a hoax. They can violate US and international laws against torture simply “because the president said so.” They can throw away habeas corpus, the constitutional requirement that a person cannot be imprisoned without evidence presented to a court. They can deny the right to an attorney. They can violate the law and spy on Americans without obtaining warrants. They can send due process to hell. In fact, they can do whatever they want just like Hitler’s Gestapo and Stalin’s secret police. But if they show undue interest in a woman or proposition a woman, they are dead meat.

Very few commentators have said a word about this. The House of Representatives did not impeach President Bill Clinton for his war crimes against Serbia. They impeached him for lying about a sexual affair with a White House intern. The US Senate, which had too many sexual affairs of its own to defend, didn’t bother to try to convict.

This is Amerika today. A president without any authority whatsoever, not in law and certainly not in the Constitution, can assassinate US citizens based on nothing except an assertion that they are a “threat.” No evidence is required. No conviction. No presentation of evidence in any court. Just a murder. That is now permissible to the Amerikan president. But let him try to get a woman who is not his wife into bed, and he is a cooked goose.

In Amerika there is no such thing any longer as torture; there is only “enhanced interrogation.” A mere word change has eliminated the crime. So torture is permissible.

In Amerika today, or in the UK and the EU, anyone who tells the truth is a “threat.” Julian Assange of Wikileaks, who made public information leaked to him by US government sources horrified by the criminal actions of the United States government, is now, as a result of Amerikan pressure on UK courts, being turned over to Sweden, which, for favors from the “world’s only superpower,” will turn him over to the US regardless of law to be prosecuted on trumped-up charges.

Western “civilization” is totally corrupted by American money. There is no integrity anywhere. For a decade Washington has been murdering women, children, village elders, and journalists in the name of the hoax “war on terror.”

What terror does the world actually see? The world sees the terror that Israel, protected by Washington, inflicts on the Palestinians. The world sees the terror that the US inflicts on Serbia, Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Yemen, Somalia, Libya, Latin America and now Africa, with Syria, Lebanon, and Iran waiting in the wings. The “war on terror” is nothing but an orchestrated invented excuse for Amerika-Israel to achieve hegemony while enriching their armaments industries.

In Greece, at least the PM committed to giving the people a say in their fate. In America the people have no voice whatsoever. The sheeple are content to be protected by “security,” porno-scanners, warrantless wiretapping, indefinite detention, and sexual groping. To carry on the hoax “war on terror,” the US government has elevated itself above the law.

The American effort to achieve accountability to law, the Occupy Wall Street (OWS) movement, if not shut down by cold weather, ice, and snow, is likely to be shut down by police violence. One riot begun by provocateurs is all it takes to transform protesters into “domestic extremists,” the number one concern of Homeland Security. The presstitute media will make the case against the rioters, and the sheeple will buy it.

The police have been militarized by Washington. Community police forces no longer represent the local public that pays their salaries. Local police represent Washington’s war against America.

American citizens are all suspects. Anyone who goes through airport security knows this. The only law that the US government obeys is not even a law. It is a bureaucratic regulation that prevents, even in dire wartime, any profiling of suspects by ethnicity or country of origin.

Consequently, all native born, flag-waving, American super-patriots are suspects when they board commercial airliners. Americans who have a life time of security clearances are subject to being porno-scanned or sexually groped. Airport Security cannot tell a “terrorist” from a CIA analyst, a Marine general or a US Senator.

Well-connected members of the ruling elite, such as Michael Chertoff, can become rich from selling the porno-scanners to taxpayers in order “to protect the public from terrorists.”

The only terrorists Americans will ever experience are those funded by their own tax dollars within their “own” government. A people incapable of perceiving its real peril has no chance of surviving. America might be a military superpower, but it no longer exists as a free country with accountable government and a rule of law.

Addendum :  The Greek prime minister has been forced to withdraw the referendum on the bailout that he promised the Greek people.   Europe’s rulers made it clear to the Greek PM that democracy has no role to play in the decision.  Greece was told to vote the deal that was handed to you or Greece is out of the EU.  The chastened PM warned the Greek parliament that the only way to remain in the EU is to submit to the dictate. 

The original source of this article is Global Research

Copyright © Dr. Paul Craig Roberts, Global Research, 2011


http://www.davidicke.com/headlines/55597-western-democracy-a-farce-and-a-sham/
The West Fake Democracy, A Farce
http://beforeitsnews.com/middle-east/2013/06/2013-show-the-west-fake-democracy-a-farce-2452086.html
http://www.godlikeproductions.com/forum1/message1696466/pg1


"Western democracy, big lie of modern world"
http://www.europaeische-aktion.org/Artikel/en/Western-democracy-big-lie-of-modern-world_18.html

 

DIVIDE & RULE POLICY
America’s “Divide and Rule” Strategies in the Middle East

The Presidential Tour of George W. Bush to the Middle East: A New Cold War?

In 1946, Winston Churchill delivered his “Iron Curtain” speech in Missouri that helped set the rhetorical stance for the rivalry between the two camps or poles respectively formed by the Soviet Union and the United States after the Second World War.

Starting in 2006, the Middle East has been depicted in a similar way by the White House and 10 Downing Street. In the end, history will decide and give its verdict on the miniature version of the Cold War now unfolding in the Middle East.

It is no secret that the 2008 presidential tour of George W. Bush Jr. to the Middle East is more about rallying hostility and antagonism against Iran and those forces resisting Washington’s political and socio-economic curriculum for the Middle East. The U.S. President’s tour is part of an exhorted effort to replace Israel with a vilified Iran as a looming threat to the Arab World. This undertaking which is part of America’s Project for a “New Middle East” was initiated after Israel’s war against Lebanon in July of 2006.

Balkanization and the Muslim Divide: Shiite Muslims versus Sunni Muslims

In relationship to the preparations for creating the “New Middle East” there have been attempts, with partial success, to deliberately create divisions within the populations of the Middle East and Central Asia through ethno-cultural, religious, sectarian, national, and political differentiations.

Aside from fuelling ethnic tensions, such as those between Kurds and Arabs in Iraq, a sectarian divide is being deliberately cultivated within the ranks of the people of the Middle East which consider themselves Muslims. This divide is being fostered between Shiite and Sunni Muslims.

These divisions have been fuelled by the U.S., British, and Israeli intelligence apparatus. The intelligence agencies of Arab regimes within the Anglo-American orbit have also been involved in the construction of these divisions. This divide is also being cultivated with the help of various groups and leaders in these respective communities.

Before the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the rulers of the Arab League countries were aware that the U.S. and Britain intended to redraw the borders of the Middle East. It was openly mentioned at the summit of Arab rulers being held in Egypt prior to the Anglo-American invasion.

The interests of many of the corrupt Arab elites, the self-proclaimed cream of the crop within the Arab World, and autocratic Arab authorities have historically convened and adhered to Anglo-American and Franco-German political and socio-economic interests.

The House of Saud, the Hariri clan of Lebanon, and the absolute rulers established throughout the Arab World all share common financial and economic links with the Project for the “New Middle East.” They have a vested interest in the promotion of the economic and political model that the U.S. wishes to entrench in the Middle East.

The “Shia Crescent” and the Phantom Iranian Conquest of the Middle East

To create hostility within the Muslim populations of the Middle East, Iran is being portrayed as the vanguard of Shia or Shiite expansionism in the region, vis-à-vis the so-called “Shia Crescent,” and Saudi Arabia portrayed as the champion of the Sunni Muslims.

The truth of the matter is that Iran does not represent all the Shiite Muslims nor does Saudi Arabia represent all the Sunni Muslims; these efforts are part of the politicizing of religious faith, which serves U.S. foreign policy goals. It also contributes to misleading public opinion throughout the Middle East.    

This animosity between peoples of Muslim faith and the populations of the Middle East has been created to justify animosity against Iran and those perceived to be in the same camp as Iran, such as Syria and Hezbollah.

Arab leaders also have an easier time controlling their populations when they are fighting against each other and are consequently weakened as a result of sectarian and ethnic divisions. The latter also create confusion within the various populations, distract them from their problems at home, and projects their animosity towards their leaders on others. Fear or anger towards the “Other” or the “Outsider” has always been a form of manipulating large groups and whole segments of societies.

With the peoples of the region divided against each other, their resources can be controlled and they themselves governed and further manipulated with greater ease. This has been part of the objective of British and American foreign policy all along. In this effort, local rulers and foreign forces have been partners.

“The Coalition of the Moderate” in the Mid-East and the manipulation of the Arabs

“We [Israel] must clandestinely cooperate with Saudi Arabia so that it also persuades the U.S. to strike Iran.”

    -Brigadier-General Oded Tira, Israeli Military

“Do not try to do too much with your own hands. Better the Arabs do it tolerably than that you do it perfectly. It is their war, and you are to help them, not to win it for them.” The historical context of this statement is very significant. This admission was made during the First World War in the Middle East when the British were fighting against the Ottoman Turks with the help of the Ottoman’s rebellious Arab subjects. The Arab’s help was insured through false promises and London’s deception. What was being revealed by this interlocutor of British policy was British forces should not do most the active fighting in the Middle East and let the Arabs fight Britain’s war against the Turks.

Revealing the author, these were the words of a man who has been inscribed into the pages of history as a legendary figure and as a hero to the Arabs. In reality he was an agent of British imperialism that misled the Arabs with the help of corrupt local leaders. His name was Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Edward Lawrence or, as most people know him, “Lawrence of Arabia.”

The 27 Articles of T.E. Lawrence
(August 20, 1917) is where these words can be found for all to scrutinize. Thus started the road down to the modern entanglement of the Arab masses to colonial masters and handpicked Western vassals.

Some may argue that the British were helping the Arabs gain autonomy, but history shows this to be an absolute lie. London was furthering its own interests and it had been a geo-strategic objective of theirs to divide the Ottoman Empire up regardless of the fact that that there was a war with the Ottomans and the Central Powers.

The Sykes-Picot Agreement reveals this as does the creation of British and French mandates in the place of what were supposed to be independent Arab nations. It should also be noted that all the major problems in the Middle East are rooted in this period from the Armenian Genocide, the Kurdish Question, and the Arab-Israeli Conflict, to the issue of Cyprus and the territorial disputes of the Persian Gulf and the Levant.

The Arab elites are being marshaled into formation yet again to do the dirty work of foreign powers. Once again, Arab leaders are also accessories to the agenda of foreigners in the Middle East against their own people. 

Links between the U.A.E. Speeches of Messrs Bush and Blair: Dividing the Mid-East into Camps

The “us and them” mentality is being lodged into the mindset of Middle Easterners in regards to themselves. The ancient region is being divided into two camps by the White House and its partners.

After the Israeli bombardment of Lebanon in July 2006, Condoleezza Rice the U.S. Secretary of State and others such as Tony Blair started this venture by categorized the Middle East into two groupings. Those in the Middle East that fell into the Anglo-American camp and colluded with Israel were described as “moderates” and “reformers” and as part of what became called the “Coalition of the Moderate.” It is also around this time that the Pentagon announced its plans to arm Israel, Mahmoud Abbas, and the Arab regimes allied to the U.S. and Britain.

Those in the Middle East who either opposed foreign intervention and hegemony in the region, either because of their own agenda or because of the right for self-determination, were labeled “extremists” and “rejectionists.” [1] These anti-hegemonic forces in the Middle East were categorized as members of the “other camp” even though in some cases they had no links aside from fighting foreign tutelage. This latter camp includes the Iraqi Resistance, Hamas, and Iran, amongst others.

There is an obvious theme in the underlying rhetoric of the December 2006 and January 2008 Middle East policy speeches of Tony Blair and George W. Bush. Both were presented in the U.A.E. and held almost exactly a year apart. Both speeches depict a bloc of radicals in the Middle East led by Iran and both speeches attempt to divide the Middle East into two opposing blocs. 

It was soon after the disastrous 2006 Israeli war against Lebanon that Tony Blair, in line with Condoleezza Rice, subtly called for “an alliance of moderation in the region and outside of it to defeat the extremists.” [2] While in Dubai the former British prime minister called Iran a “strategic challenge,” which according to Paul Reynolds, an international affairs correspondent, was a replacement for the words “strategic threat” from his original speech read in California. He also replaced the words “trying to acquire a nuclear weapon” with “trying to acquire nuclear weapons capability.” [3] This obvious change in word selection was because the people of the countries living next to Iran know better and would not have taken Tony Blair’s speech seriously.

This was simply the beginning of the public revelation of the alliance system that already informally subsisted in the Middle East. Tony Blair’s U.A.E. speech was another stage in the media phase of the war effort that includes the preparation of the general public for confrontation in the Middle East. It was also part of the attempt to turn the conflict into one of ideas and an ideological one like the Cold War.

The U.A.E. and Israel as models for the “New Middle East”

By the start of 2008, the White House and its allies have ceased their insincere chatter about democratization in the Middle East, except in the case of Iran where it is mentioned ad nauseam. This sidesteps the reality that Iran holds democratic elections and that Iran is a far less inhibited state than any of America’s Arab sponsored regimes. Democracy has never been a goal for the U.S. in the Middle East, especially in regards to its own set of autocratic and dictatorial allies.

The White House is promoting two models on two different levels in the Middle East as a part of its regional project. One is the latent model of Israel as a homogenous nation. The second model, which is openly promoted, is the Khaliji (Gulf) model or that of the Arab Sheikhdoms that form the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) in the Persian Gulf littoral. The Khaliji model applies in particular to the U.A.E. and one of its seven emirates, Dubai, as its embodiment. Israel is the socio-political model for the Middle East, whereas Dubai is the socio-economic model for the Middle East. Both models also bare staggering social ramifications.

The Israeli model, which is being moved forward is not based on any democratic values, quite the opposite. It is predicated on ethnocentrism and discrimination. The Middle East is being reconfigured in Israel’s image as a region with homogenous states and this is evident in Iraq and a reason for the tensions being fanned by foreign influence in the multi-confessional Lebanese Republic. Just as Israel is considered the “Jewish State” the Project for the “New Middle East” wants to establish a whole series of single-identity states in the ancient region.

The socio-economic model of Dubai and the GCC is based on a vertical mosaic, in the tradition of John A. Porter’s The Vertical Mosaic: An Analysis of Social Class and Power in Canada, where ethnicity, heredity, and origins play a role in individual status and its system in itself is a reconstruction of the caste system of India.

Dubai is a place that is rabid with the exploitation of foreign workers and nationals and is infamous for the institutionalization of gross inequities and immorality. Local laws are made to only benefit the privileged and powerful, while the poor are suppressed. Money laundering and prostitution are also far spread in Dubai and the U.A.E. is a modern Sodom and Gomorrah.

Israel, NATO, and the Arab Regimes: A Nexus against Resistance

The House of Saud and Saudi Arabia have emerged as the main force in configuring a public embracement between Israel and the Arab World under the auspices of the 2002 Arab Initiative. [4] This Saudi-proposed initiative is deeply tied to the Project for a “New Middle East” and allows Israel to integrate its economy with that of the Arab World and allows for the creation of an alliance between Israel and the Arab regimes against any forces in the Middle East resisting America, its allies, and more importantly their political and socio-economic model.

Despite King Abdullah’s speech in Riyadh during the March 2007 Arab League Summit, Saudi Arabia has officially opposed any end to the Anglo-American occupation of Iraq and the withdrawal of foreign troops from Iraq under the pretext that the Iraqi Shiites and the Iranians will kill the Iraqi Sunnis.

A representative of the Saudi Monarchy, quoting Prince Turki Al-Faisal, informed the U.S. press that, “Since America came into [meaning invaded] Iraq uninvited, it should not leave [end the Anglo-American occupation] uninvited,” and rhetorically added that “If it [the U.S.] does [withdraw its troops from Iraq], one of the first consequences will be a massive Saudi intervention to stop Iranian-backed Shia militias from butchering Iraqi Sunnis.” [5]

Israel has always considered the leaders of Jordan as important assets and allies to pacify the Arabs. On April 18, 2007 King Abdullah II of Jordan reconfirmed this publicly known Israeli secret. King Abdullah II told a visiting Israeli delegation that Jordan and Israel were allies, emphasizing that he not only spoke for the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan but for Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and the Arab Sheikdoms of the Persian Gulf. [6]

The Jordanian King narrated  to Dalia Itzik, Acting Israeli President, Tzachi Hanegbi, the Chairman of the Israeli Foreign Affairs and Defence Committee, and other Israeli officials that “we [Arab rulers and Israel] are in the same boat;  we have the same problem [the forces of resistance in the region]. We have the same enemies [Syria, Iran, the Palestinians, and Lebanon].” [7]

It is worth noting that the Saudi government and the Arab leaders of Egypt, Jordan, and the Arab Sheikdoms of the Persian Gulf were fully involved, covertly and/or overtly, in the 1991 Gulf War and in the 2003 Anglo-American invasion of Iraq. These rulers also played major roles in the Iraq-Iran War and the economic warfare against Iraq which prodded Iraq into invading Kuwait for economic relief after its bitter war with Iran.    

Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and Jordan are all firmly in the Anglo-American camp. They are part of the extended international military network controlled by the United States. They are already members of the coalition that has been formed against Iran, Syria, and those forces that have allied themselves with Tehran and Damascus. [8] To varying degrees these Arab states are also allied with Israel and NATO. All of these Arab governments that are labeled as “pro-Western” or “pro-American” also have bilateral military and security ties and agreements with the United States or Britain and NATO. However, it is not certain that these states will stay by the side of Washington, D.C. and London.

Turning the Mediterranean Sea and the Persian Gulf into NATO Lakes

NATO is expanding, but not only in Europe and the former Soviet Union. There have been longstanding plans to turn the Mediterranean into a permanent “NATO lake” and an arena closely linked to the European Union. The Russian naval build-up in the Eastern Mediterranean and off the Syrian coast is a move to challenge this process.

Several Arab regimes have had agreements and military arrangements with NATO through NATO’s Mediterranean Dialogue (established in 1995) for over a decade. Amongst them are Egypt and Jordan. These are the Arab nations that border the Mediterranean or are in close proximity to it. While on the other hand, the Arab Sheikhdoms of the Persian Gulf have lately entered into arrangements with NATO. For example, Kuwait recently signed security agreements with NATO and effectively opened the door for NATO entrance into the Persian Gulf.

The GCC agreements underway with NATO are effectively an extension of the Mediterranean Dialogue and NATO expansion eastwards. The shift to create a Gulf common market similar to the E.U. and a Mediterranean Union are also linked to NATO expansion and the project to permanently compel the Washington Consensus on the Middle East and the Arab World 

The expansion of a mandate for NATO in the Persian Gulf has been in motion for years and has followed behind NATO’s objectives in the Mediterranean Sea. NATO influence in the Persian Gulf effectively allows the area to fall under the joint management of Franco-German and Anglo-American interests. It is no coincidence that Nicolas Sarkozy started his presidential tour of the Middle East in the same window of time as the U.S. President nor is it a twist of fate that France and the U.A.E. signed an agreement on January 15, 2008 allowing France to establish a permanent military base in U.A.E. territory on the shores of the Persian Gulf. [9]

The Real Divisions in the Middle East: Indigenous Forces versus Foreign Clients

In Palestine, during past demonstrations in 2006, the press reported that small groups of Fatah supporters chanted “Shia, Shia, Shia” in mockery of Hamas because of its political links to Tehran, because Iran is a predominately Shiite Muslim country.[10] This was a dismal sign of the growing animosity that has been inseminated in the Middle East. Yet, it also reflects that the divisions in the Middle East, such as the Shiite-Sunni divide, are manufactured and artificially engineered.

Hamas, like Syria, is Sunni Muslim in identity and it is allied with Iran, which is predominately Shiite Muslim. This alliance clearly demonstrates that the real divisions in the Middle East are not based on religious or ethnic affinity or differences. Similarly, in Lebanon the forces of resistance are Muslim, Christian, and Druze and not just Hezbollah or Lebanon’s Shiite Muslims as is often described in the Western media.

In reality, the regional differences in the Middle East are between the independent and indigenous forces, regardless of religion, politics, and/or ethnicity, in the region and the client forces and governments in the region that serve Anglo-American and Franco-German foreign policy and economic interests.

The Resistance Bloc

“As Lord Chatham said, when he was speaking on the British presence in North America, he said ‘if I was an American, as I am an Englishman, as long as one Englishman remained on American native soil, I would never, never, never lay down my arms.’”

    -General Sir Michael Rose, British Army

 To generalize, the independent and indigenous forces of the Middle East are:

.1. Most of the various Palestinian fractions. This included the Palestinian Authority under Hamas before the Mecca Accord and the truce that was reached with Mahmoud Abbas and Fatah;

.2. The Lebanese Resistance and National Opposition in Lebanon, which is a combination of Muslims, Druze, and Christians;

.3. The Iraqi Resistance, which is a genuine series of diverse peoples’ movements that reflects the will of the Iraqi people(s);

.4. Syria;

.5. Iran, which is both a rival and the centre of the organized political and state-levels of resistance. 

People-based Resistance and State-based Resistance

The forces of resistance in the Middle East and neighbouring Afghanistan can be classified as being either a peoples’ resistance or being a state-level force of resistance. However, there is a third and hybrid category. 

Iraq and Afghanistan both purely represent peoples’ resistance movements. Iran and Syria, for whatever rationale (good and bad), represent cases of state-level centres of resistance to the U.S., NATO, and Israel. Sudan also falls into this category.

The forces of resistance in Palestine and Lebanon fall in between these two categories as a mixture of state-level and people-based resistance. In close proximity to the Middle East in the Horn of Africa, Somalia is a debatable case, but is also an authentic centre of resistance against foreign control that is linked to the struggle to reconfigure the Middle East.

The forces of resistance in Lebanon and Palestine are also distinctive in that they are also locked in internal or domestic struggles between client and co-opted forces serving the Anglo-American, Franco-German, and Israeli agenda in the Middle East.

The involvement of a whole nation’s assets is obviously one of the major differences between the state-level centres of resistance, such as Iran, and the peoples’ movements of resistance that is disenfranchised from governing, such as in Iraq. However, wherever there is a greater amount of foreign military subjugation the forces of resistance are stronger and spring from the support of the local populaces. The heavy casualties that the U.S., Britain, and NATO are facing in Iraq and Afghanistan are because of the will of the peoples’ and their resistance.

Struggles across the Mid-East: The “Coalition of the Moderate” versus the Resistance Bloc

The existing divisions between the independent and indigenous forces of the Middle East and those aligned within the Anglo-American orbit are represented by the following:

.1. The struggle between Hamas and its allies with Israel, Fatah, and their allies in the Palestinian Territories;

.2. The ongoing struggle between the Iraqi Resistance, which is essentially the Iraqi people, with the U.S. and Coalition forces over the occupation of Iraq;

.3. The political face-off between the Lebanese National Opposition (the majority in Lebanon) and the Lebanese governing parties (the minority in Lebanon);

.4. The clash over Lebanon, Palestine, and Iraq taking place between Syria and both NATO powers and their Arab clients;

.5. And finally the many bitter regional and international rows between Iran and the United States, which includes the Iranian nuclear energy program and Iraq.

The Bush Tour: War Drums, Resistance, and the “New Middle East”

“One cause of instability is the extremists supported and embodied by the regime that sits in Tehran. Iran is today the world’s leading state sponsor of terror. It sends hundreds of millions of dollars to extremists around the world — while its own people face repression and economic hardship at home. It undermines Lebanese hopes for peace by arming and aiding the terrorist group Hezbollah. It subverts the hopes for peace in other parts of the region by funding terrorist groups like Hamas and the Palestine Islamic Jihad. It sends arms to the Taliban in Afghanistan and Shia militants in Iraq. It seeks to intimidate its neighbors with ballistic missiles and bellicose rhetoric. And finally, it defies the United Nations and destabilizes the region by refusing to be open and transparent about its nuclear programs and ambitions. Iran’s actions threaten the security of nations everywhere. So the United States is strengthening our longstanding security commitments with our friends in the Gulf — and rallying friends around the world to confront this danger before it is too late.”

   -George W. Bush Jr., 43rd President of the United States (Speech in Abu Dhabi, the United Arab Emirates, January 13, 2008)

It is no secret that the main purpose of the U.S. presidential tour of the Middle East was to raise opposition against Iran and anyone resisting the “New Middle East.” Almost immediately, Syria claimed that the presidential Middle Eastern tour of George W. Bush Jr. was mostly made to try and further isolate Syria and orchestrate a future war scenario against Iran. [11]

The U.S. President’s tour of the Middle East came at a time when the U.S. Navy made false claims about threats being made by Iranian Revolutionary Guard speedboats in the Persian Gulf.

After the U.S. Navy withdrew its allegations the U.S. President stated that if any thing negative should happen to U.S. warships in the region it would be Tehran that would be held responsible.

At the same time there was a bombing in Beirut that was directed against the American embassy. The bombing in Beirut could have been staged, just as the U.S. Navy’s claims were fictitious, to justify the U.S. President’s position against Iran and the Resistance Bloc. In addition, reports were released from Israel about an Iranian-made rocket being fired from the Gaza Strip by the Palestinians during the U.S. President’s tour of the Middle East.

In 2007, the Syrian President while in Deir ez-Zor, on the eve of an important conference on Iraq in Sharm el-Sheikh in which Condoleeza Rice publicly initiated contact with the foreign ministers of Syria and Iran, warned his countrymen that “Syria, the Arab region and the Middle East are going through a dangerous period. Destructive colonial projects are seeking to divide and reshape our region creating a new Sykes-Picot [Agreement].” [12]

Abdel Al-Bari Atouani, a noted Palestinian figure and the editor-in-chief of the Al-Qods Al-Arabi in London, warned in a televised interview with ANB TV in early-February, 2007 that the U.S. is exploiting the Arab countries through their governments as the firewood to wage a war against Iran and its allies in the Middle East.

The Jerusalem Post, in sequence with the U.S. President’s arrival in Saudi Arabia from the U.A.E., released statements from an unnamed senior Palestinian official from the West Bank claiming that “Syria and Iran have stepped up their efforts to overthrow Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas and his ruling Fatah party.” [13] The claims were compiled by Khaled Abu Toameh and also brought to light the political gathering of a large array of Palestinian political parties (referred to by Abu Toameh as “radical groups”) that will be hosted by the Syrians in Damascus.

Not surprisingly, Khaled Abu Toameh’s article failed to point out that the Palestinian government running the West Bank is illegitimate and follows the orders of Mahmoud Abbas instead of a popularly elected Palestinian prime minister. The Palestinians gathering in Damascus will study ways to make the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) more inclusive and representative of mainstream Palestinian desires instead of the edicts of Mahmoud Abbas and a few other individuals that run portions of the West Bank as personal fiefdoms with Israel and the White House as their overlords.

In Lebanon, a newspaper affiliated with the Hariri family and its political allies also started to toe the American-led campaign line to demonize Iran. An-Nahar, the newspaper once edited by the slain Lebanese parliamentarian Gebran Tueni, stated in an opinion piece by Ali Hamade that the Arab League must pressure Tehran for a settlement in Lebanon and it is in Iran that the path lies to a Lebanese settlement or towards confrontation “if developments [in the Middle East] headed towards a confrontation with the Iranian imperial agenda for the Arab East.”

The Oval Office, the Establishment, and Anglo-American Foreign Policy in the Middle East

U.S. and British foreign policies are more about the objectives of the Anglo-American establishment than the distinctiveness of the individuals that hold the office of American president and British prime minister. This reality has been confirmed in the course of the election campaign by the potential successors of George W. Bush Jr., Democrats and Republicans alike.

Aside from a few individuals who represent the true aspirations of the American people, the majority of presidential contenders in the U.S. are talking about a virtual continuation of the military policies of the Bush Jr. Administration. 

John McCain has talked about attacking Lebanon and Syria. [14]

Hilary Clinton wants a permanent occupation of Iraq or a “post-occupation phase” as U.S. officials decadently call it and she has threatened Iran.

Rudy Giuliani, the former mayor of New York City, has made it clear he intends to mirror the Bush Jr. Administration and that he does not intent to recognize a Palestinian state and that he would use nuclear weapons against a non-nuclear Iran. 

The era of wars will not be over with the departure of George W. Bush Jr. and Vice-President Cheney from the White House.

The problem is deeper and more complicated than the persona of one man and his cabinet. George W. Bush Jr. is only a figurehead in the mechanisms of a larger machine; he represents the establishment but he alone or his cabinet do not steer the helm of U.S. foreign policy.

Important Questions: The Nature of Cooperation and Rivalry between America, Iran, and Syria

Our reality is a far more complicated one. Once upon a time, before coming to power, Hamas used to collaborate with Israel against Yasser Arafat’s Fatah.

The Christian Science Monitor made a good point in an article by Marc Lynch: “‘Everywhere you turn, it is the policy of Iran to foment instability and chaos,’ Defence Secretary Robert Gates warned Gulf dignitaries in Bahrain last month [December, 2007]. But in reality, everywhere you turn, from Qatar to Saudi Arabia to Egypt, you now see Iranian leaders shattering longstanding taboos by meeting cordially with their Arab counterparts.” [15]

In fact the Iranian President, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, was invited to the important GCC Summit in the Qatari capital, Doha, which discussed the economic integration of the Persian Gulf and GCC-Iranian cooperation. Iran, Oman, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia also were making public shows of drawing closer even before the gathering in Doha, which included military and economic agreements between Oman and Iran.

Cairo and Tehran have also publicly opened the door for the full normalization of diplomatic relations. What develops in Egyptian-Iranian relations is yet to be seen. Iran is also making further economic and commercial inroads into both Iraq and Afghanistan. Iran and Syria are also linking their energy infrastructure with Iraq and also taking steps that undeniable assist the U.S. in Anglo-American occupied Iraq.

The nomination of General Michel Sulaiman as the next Lebanese president has also been called a concession to Syria for its cooperation with the U.S. in Iraq and even for its attendance at the Annapolis Summit.

However, if this is so then there are unanswered questions not only about Syrian-American cooperation, but about the meeting between David Welch, the U.S. Under-Secretary of State for Near Eastern Affairs, and General Sulaiman before the fighting between Fatal Al-Islam and the Lebanese Army erupted in 2007.

It is clear that there is an agenda to redraw the borders of the Middle East in order to institute lasting economic policies that benefit Anglo-American and Franco-German interests, along with their Israeli bulldog in the Middle East.

The Syrians and the Iranians are well aware of the plans to divide their home region and to play the peoples of the Middle East against one another. Tehran and Damascus too have been guilty of playing the same game for their own interests, but what America and its allies envision is a far broader partition and reconfiguration of the Middle East, which also places Syria and Iran in the sights of this historic struggle.

The question here is: are these efforts to divide the Middle East (into “moderates” and “radicals”) part of a policy of containment, a war strategy, or something far more sinister?

The intentions of people-based resistance movements like those of the Iraqi Resistance are simple and mostly clear, but state-based resistance — if it can really be called that — is often ambivalent in its intent.

Are Iran and Syria genuinely resisting the “New Middle East” which in the end serves the Washington Consensus? The ongoing economic reforms including the privatization programs in both Iran and Syria suggest that these countries are not totally opposed to the dominant neo-liberal agenda, which characterises Washington’s expansionary policies. [16]

It is no sin to question motives, especially when circumstances call for it, but it is a sin and a crime to mislead the masses. As developments in the Middle East unfold, the political stance of Iran and Syria will become clearer.

NOTES 

[1] Jonathan Beale, Rice seeks Mid-East support on Iraq, British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), January 13, 2007.

[2] Paul Reynolds, Blair and the ‘strategic challenge’ of Iran, British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), December 20, 2007.

[3] Ibid.

[4] Uzi Mahnaimi, Saudis lead Israel peace bid, The Times (U.K.), December 3, 2006.

[5] Simon Tisdall, Iran v Saudis in battle of Beirut, The Guardian (U.K.), December 5, 2006.

[6] Shahar Ilan, Jordan’s Abdullah tells Israel: We share same enemies, Haaretz, April 19, 2007.

The remarks were immediately denied by the Jordanian King once they were circulated by the Israeli press. These denials are parallel to the denials of the House of Saud about its diplomatic meetings and negotiations between Saudi Arabia and Israel which were divulged as true after the initial denials. 

[7] Ibid.

[8] Anatole Kaletsky, An unholy alliance threatening catastrophe, The Times (U.K.), January 4, 2007.

[9] Laurent Pirot, France Signs UAE Military Base Agreement, Associated Press, January 12, 2008; Emmanuel Jarry, France, UAE sign military, nuclear agreement, Reuters, January 15, 2008; Paul Reynolds, French make serious move into Gulf, British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), January 15, 2008.

[10] Fatah, Hamas clash in Gaza after Abbas calls early elections, Associated Press, December 16, 2006.

[11] Damascus slams Arab leaders for allowing Bush’s ‘criticism of Syria,’ Deutsche Presse-Agentur (DPA)/ German Press Agency, January 14, 2008.

[12] Mazen and Thawra, President al-Assad says Arab Region passes through new juncture, Syrian Arab News Agency (SANA), April 30, 2007.

[13] Khaled Abu Toameh, Syria, Iran trying to overthrow Abbas, The Jerusalem Post, January 15, 2008.

[14] Shani Rosenfelder, McCain: Disarm Hizbullah, tackle Assad, The Jerusalem Post, August 9, 2007.

[15] Marc Lynch, Why U.S. strategy on Iran is crumbling: Gulf states no longer want to isolate Iran, Christian Science Monitor, January 4, 2008.

[16] Mahdi Darius Nazemroaya, The Sino-Russian Alliance: Challenging America’s Ambitions in Eurasia, Centre for Research on Globalization (CRG), August 26, 2007; Julian Barnes-Dacey, Even with sanctions, Syrians embrace KFC and Gap, Christian Science Monitor, January 11, 2008.

Mahdi Darius Nazemroaya is an independent writer based in Ottawa specializing in Middle Eastern affairs. He is a Research Associate of the Centre for Research on Globalization (CRG).

The original source of this article is Global Research

Copyright © Mahdi Darius Nazemroaya, Global Research, 2008


http://www.globalresearch.ca/america-s-divide-and-rule-strategies-in-the-middle-east/7816

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Over 100 Lies Told to Promote the Iraq War - Politix Links

Lie by Lie: A Timeline of How We Got Into Iraq

Mushroom clouds, duct tape, Judy Miller, Curveball. Recalling how Americans were sold a bogus case for invasion.

Jonathan Stein and Tim DickinsonSeptember/October 2006 Issue

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At a congressional hearing examining the march to war in Iraq, Republican congressman Walter Jones posed “a very simple question” about the administration’s manipulation of intelligence: “How could the professionals see what was happening and nobody speak out?”

Colonel Lawrence Wilkerson, Colin Powell’s former chief of staff, responded with an equally simple answer: “The vice president.”

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But the blame for Iraq does not end with Cheney, Bush, or Rumsfeld. Nor is it limited to the intelligence operatives who sat silent as the administration cherry-picked its case for war, or with those, like Colin Powell or Hans Blix, who, in the name of loyalty or statesmanship, did not give full throat to their misgivings. It is also shared by far too many in the Fourth Estate, most notably the New York Times‘ Judith Miller. But let us not forget that it lies, inescapably, with we the American people, who, in our fear and rage over the catastrophic events of September 11, 2001, allowed ourselves to be suckered into the most audacious bait and switch of all time.

The first drafts of history are, by their nature, fragmentary. They arrive tragically late, and too often out of order. Back in 2006, we attempted to strip the history of the runup to the war to its bones, to reconstruct a skeleton that we thought might be key in resolving the open questions of the Bush era. As we prepare to leave Iraq, we present that timeline to you again. MotherJones.com offers a greatly expanded (if now technologically outdated) version of this timeline, one that is completely sourced to primary documents and initial news accounts. It was our hope to make this second draft of history as definitive as possible. So that we won’t be fooled again.—THE EDITORS

8/14/92

Defense Secretary Dick Cheney declares President Bush Sr. wise not to invade Baghdad and “get bogged down in the problems of trying to take over and govern Iraq.”

4/15/93

Saddam Hussein reportedly tries to assassinate Bush Sr.

1/26/98

 

Project for a New American Century (PNAC)—founded by Cheney, Scooter Libby, Donald Rumsfeld, Jeb Bush, Paul Wolfowitz, and other top neocons—demands President Clinton undertake the “removal of Saddam Hussein’s regime.”

6/23/98

“The good Lord didn’t see fit to put oil and gas only where there are democratically elected regimes friendly to the United States.”—Halliburton CEO Cheney

8/7/98

Al Qaeda bombs US embassies in Africa, killing 220 and injuring some 4,000.

10/31/98

Clinton signs the Iraq Liberation Act. Regime change becomes official US policy.

Late 1998

Gen. Anthony Zinni, head of US Central Command, examines Iraqi exile Ahmed Chalabi’s military plan to overthrow Saddam with 1,000 men. He warns Congress it is “pie in the sky, a fairy tale.”

Nov 1999

Chalabi-connected Iraqi defector “Curveball”—a convicted sex offender and low-level engineer who became the sole source for much of the case that Saddam had WMD, particularly mobile weapons labs—enters Munich seeking a German visa. German intel officers describe his information as highly suspect. US agents never debrief Curveball or perform background check. Nonetheless, Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) and CIA will pass raw intel on to senior policymakers. [Date the public knew: 11/20/05]

8/27/00

America must not act as “an imperialist power, willy-nilly moving into capitals in that part of the world, taking down governments.”—VP candidate Cheney

10/3/00

Debating Al Gore, George W. Bush says he’d commit troops only with an “exit strategy,” and he’d be “very careful about using our troops as nation builders.”

10/11/00

In a subsequent debate, Bush says: “If we’re an arrogant nation, they’ll resent us. If we’re a humble nation, but strong, they’ll welcome us.”

10/12/00

Al Qaeda attacks USS Cole in Aden, Yemen, killing 17 and injuring 39.

11/6/00

Congress doubles funding for Iraqi opposition groups to more than $25 million; $18 million is earmarked for Chalabi’s Iraqi National Congress, which then pays defectors for anti-Iraq tales.

11/7/00

Election night: Indecision 2000 begins.

Nov 2000

Future Chief Justice John Roberts flies to Florida to advise Jeb Bush during recount.

12/12/00

Supreme Court hands presidency to George W. Bush.

Early 2001

Enron CEO Ken Lay named to Bush Energy Department transition team. Jack Abramoff appointed to Interior Department transition team.

1/30/01

<!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1042" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="" style="'width:70.8pt;height:94.2pt'"> <v:imagedata src="file:///C:\Users\user\AppData\Local\Temp\msohtmlclip1\01\clip_image032.jpg" o:href="https://motherjones.com/wp-content/uploads/images/dick.jpg"/> </v:shape><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]--> Removal is top item of Bush’s inaugural national security meeting. Treasury Secretary Paul O’Neill later recalls, “It was all about finding a way to do it. The president saying, ‘Go find me a way to do this.'” [Date the public knew: 1/10/04]

2/11/01

“Iraq is probably not a nuclear threat at the present time.”—Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld tells Fox News’ Tony Snow

2/14/01

Dick Cheney‘s energy task force begins secret meetings with oil company executives. [Date the public knew: 4/16/01]

2/16/01

Bush: “To send a clear signal to Saddam,” US and UK bomb targets near Baghdad.

2/24/01

Saddam “has not developed any significant capability with respect to weapons of mass destruction.”—Secretary of State Colin Powell

2/26/01

Future Iraq Ambassador L. Paul Bremer III says: “The new administration seems to be paying no attention to the problem of terrorism.” [Date the public knew: 4/29/04]

3/5/01

Pentagon produces document titled “Foreign Suitors for Iraqi Oilfield Contracts” for Cheney’s task force. Includes a map of areas for potential exploration. [Date the public knew: 7/17/03]

4/10/01

Lone CIA analyst known only as “Joe” tells top Bush brass that aluminum tubes bought by Iraq can only be for nuclear centrifuges. [Date the public knew: 8/10/03]

8/6/01

<!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1043" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="" style="'width:127.2pt;height:108.6pt' " o:bordertopcolor="this" o:borderleftcolor="this" o:borderbottomcolor="this" o:borderrightcolor="this"> <v:imagedata src="file:///C:\Users\user\AppData\Local\Temp\msohtmlclip1\01\clip_image034.jpg" o:href="https://motherjones.com/wp-content/uploads/images/bush-hat-425.jpg"/> <w:bordertop type="single" width="4"/> <w:borderleft type="single" width="4"/> <w:borderbottom type="single" width="4"/> <w:borderright type="single" width="4"/> </v:shape><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->

Presidential Daily Briefing warning, “Bin Laden Determined to Strike in US.” FBI highlights Al Qaeda activities consistent with hijacking preparations, as well as surveillance of federal buildings. [Date the public knew: 5/18/02]

CIA officer flies to Crawford to call Bush’s attention to document. Bush replies, “All right, you’ve covered your ass now.” [Date the public knew: 6/20/06]

8/10/01

Major air raid on Iraq.

8/17/01

<!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1044" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="" style="'width:57.6pt;height:69.6pt'"> <v:imagedata src="file:///C:\Users\user\AppData\Local\Temp\msohtmlclip1\01\clip_image036.jpg" o:href="https://motherjones.com/wp-content/uploads/images/condolezza_rice.jpg"/> </v:shape><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->Memo to CIA from Energy Department experts eviscerates “Joe’s” theory that aluminum tubes purchased by Iraq are for nuclear centrifuges. Memo given to National Security Adviser Condoleezza Rice, who later claims tubes are clear evidence of Iraqi nuke program. [Date the public knew: 5/1/04]

Sep 2001

Curveball granted German asylum, ceases cooperating. British spy agency MI6 has told CIA that “elements of [his] behavior strike us as typical of…fabricators.” [Date the public knew: 11/20/05]

9/10/01

NSA intercepts messages that say, “The match is about to begin” and “Tomorrow is zero hour.” Not translated until Sept. 12. [Date the public knew: 6/10/02]

9/11/01

<!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1045" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="" style="'width:113.4pt;height:39pt'"> <v:imagedata src="file:///C:\Users\user\AppData\Local\Temp\msohtmlclip1\01\clip_image037.jpg" o:href="https://motherjones.com/wp-content/uploads/images/rumsfeld-aid-minutes-2-425.jpg"/> </v:shape><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]--><img alt="" Al Qaeda Minutes taken by a Rumsfeld aide five hours later: “Best info fast. Judge whether good enough [to] hit SH [Saddam Hussein] @ same time. Not only UBL [Usama bin Laden].” [Date the public knew: 9/4/02]

9/12/01

According to counterterror czar Richard Clarke, “[Bush] told us, ‘I want you, as soon as you can, to go back over everything, everything. See if Saddam did this.'” Told evidence against Al Qaeda overwhelming, Bush asks for “any shred” Saddam was involved. [Date the public knew: 3/22/04]

9/17/01

Bush wants Osama “Dead or Alive.”

9/18/01

Anthrax attacks begin.

9/18/01

In a move a federal judge will later call “conscience-shocking,” EPA chief Christine Todd Whitman says area around Ground Zero is safe and encourages residents to return.

9/18/01

Chalabi meets with top DOD officials. [Date the public knew: 5/04]

9/19/01

Pentagon’s Defense Policy Board, chaired by Richard Perle and featuring Henry Kissinger and Newt Gingrich, declares that Iraq should be invaded after Afghanistan. [Date the public knew: 10/12/01]

9/20/01

British PM Tony Blair advises Bush not to lose focus on Al Qaeda. Bush replies: “I agree with you, Tony. But when we have dealt with Afghanistan, we must come back to Iraq.” [Date the public knew: 5/1/04]

9/20/01

PNAC letter to Bush: “Even if evidence does not link Iraq directly to the attack, any strategy aiming at the eradication of terrorism and its sponsors must include a determined effort to remove Saddam Hussein from power.” [Date the public knew: 9/21/01]

9/21/01

Bush briefed by intel community that there is no evidence linking Saddam to 9/11. [Date the public knew: 11/22/05]

9/21/01

<!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1046" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="" style="'width:49.2pt;height:67.8pt'"> <v:imagedata src="file:///C:\Users\user\AppData\Local\Temp\msohtmlclip1\01\clip_image039.jpg" o:href="https://motherjones.com/wp-content/uploads/images/yoo.jpg"/> </v:shape><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->Justice Department lawyer John Yoo declares Fourth Amendment flexible, writing: “[T]he government may be justified in taking measures which in less troubled conditions could be seen as infringements of individual liberties.” [Date the public knew: 10/24/04]

9/25/01

Yoo forges doctrine of preemption, writing that Bush may use his war powers to act against groups or individuals, even if it would be “difficult to establish [that they] have been or may be implicated in attacks.” [Date the public knew: 3/22/02]

Oct 2001

Rumsfeld sets up own intelligence unit to look for Iraqi links to terrorism. [Date the public knew: 10/24/04]

Oct-Nov 2001

Prisoners rendered to Egypt and Jordan. After prolonged torture and subsequent years of imprisonment at Guantánamo, some of these same prisoners are found to have no terror connection and released. [Date the public knew: 6/27/06]

10/7/01

Afghanistan invaded.

10/8/01

Office of Homeland Security established.

10/11/01

Terror alert: Terrorists could attack unspecified targets in “next several days.”

10/25/01

Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism (USA PATRIOT) Act passes 98-1 in the Senate.

10/30/01

Head of Homeland Security Tom Ridge announces, “We believe the United States could very well be targeted this week.”

11/8/01

The New York Times and Frontline report that an Iraqi general witnessed the Iraqi military training Arab fighters to hijack airplanes. Mother Jones later reports general to be bogus Chalabi plant. [Date the public knew: 3/1/06]

11/11/01

Ibn al-Shaykh al-Libi, top Al Qaeda paramilitary trainer, captured in Pakistan.

11/21/01

<!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1047" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="" style="'width:42pt;height:67.8pt'"> <v:imagedata src="file:///C:\Users\user\AppData\Local\Temp\msohtmlclip1\01\clip_image040.jpg" o:href="https://motherjones.com/wp-content/uploads/images/bin-laden.jpg"/> </v:shape><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->< Bush collars Rumsfeld physically and asks: “What have you got in terms of plans for Iraq? What is the status of the war plan? I want you to get on it. I want you to keep it secret.”—Bob Woodward. [Date the public knew: 4/18/04]

11/24/01

“American Taliban” John Walker Lindh captured.

11/26/01

Bush declares, “Saddam is evil.”

Late Nov 2001

Osama bin Laden, pinned down at Tora Bora, slips away.

12/2/01

Enron declares bankruptcy.

12/3/01

Terror alert.

12/9/01

Cheney on Meet the Press: “Well, the evidence is pretty conclusive that the Iraqis have indeed harbored terrorists.” Also claims 9/11 hijacker Mohammed Atta met with Iraqi spy in Prague, a claim he’ll repeat long after CIA and Czechs disavow.

12/12/01

<!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1048" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="" style="'width:48pt;height:67.8pt'"> <v:imagedata src="file:///C:\Users\user\AppData\Local\Temp\msohtmlclip1\01\clip_image041.jpg" o:href="https://motherjones.com/wp-content/uploads/images/reid.jpg"/> </v:shape><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->< Rumsfeld demands plan for war against Iraq. Gen. Tommy Franks proposes softening up Iraq: “I’m thinking in terms of spikes, Mr. Secretary. Spurts of activity followed by periods of inactivity.” [Date the public knew: 8/3/04]

12/22/01

Shoe bomber Richard Reid tries to blow up an AA flight from Paris to Miami.

12/28/01

Gen. Franks briefs Bush on Iraq war plans. [Date the public knew: 3/5/03]

Early 2002

Bush approves “The Program,” which permits NSA to surveil US citizens without a warrant, court approval, or signoff from the Justice Dept. [Date the public knew: 12/16/05]

Jan 2002

<!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1049" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="" style="'width:53.4pt;height:67.8pt'"> <v:imagedata src="file:///C:\Users\user\AppData\Local\Temp\msohtmlclip1\01\clip_image042.jpg" o:href="https://motherjones.com/wp-content/uploads/images/gonzales.jpg"/> </v:shape><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]--><The FBI, which favors standard law enforcement interrogation practices, loses debate with CIA Director George Tenet, and Libi is transferred to CIA custody. Libi is then rendered to Egypt. “They duct-taped his mouth, cinched him up and sent him to Cairo,” an FBI agent told reporters. “At the airport the CIA case officer goes up to him and says, ‘You’re going to Cairo, you know. Before you get there, I am going to find your mother and I’m going to fuck her.'” [Date the public knew: 6/13/04] Under torture, Libi invents tale of Al Qaeda operatives receiving chemical weapons training from Iraq. “This is the problem with using the waterboard. They get so desperate that they begin telling you what they think you want to hear,” a CIA source later tells ABC. [Date the public knew: 11/18/05]

1/9/02

Yoo memo to Pentagon brass declares that the laws of war, including the Geneva Conventions, do not apply to the conflict in Afghanistan. [Date the public knew: 5/24/04]

1/11/02

William Howard Taft IV, the State Department’s chief legal adviser, responds to Yoo: “Your position is, at this point, erroneous in its substance and untenable in practice. Let’s talk.”

1/11/02

<!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1050" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="" style="'width:100.8pt;height:84pt'"> <v:imagedata src="file:///C:\Users\user\AppData\Local\Temp\msohtmlclip1\01\clip_image043.jpg" o:href="https://motherjones.com/wp-content/uploads/images/guantanamo425.jpg"/> </v:shape><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]--><

1/22/02

Navy photo released showing detainees bound and hooded. Rumsfeld defends the detentions of “committed terrorists.”

1/23/02

Pakistani militants kidnap Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl.

1/25/02

White House Counsel Alberto Gonzales echoes Yoo: “In my judgment, this new paradigm renders obsolete Geneva’s strict limitations on questioning of enemy prisoners and renders quaint some of its provisions.” [Date the public knew: 4/26/04]

1/27/02

Cheney calls Gitmo detainees “the worst of a very bad lot. They are very dangerous. They are devoted to killing millions of Americans.”

1/29/02

Bush delivers “Axis of Evil” State of the Union. Speechwriter David Frum later says phrase was the fruit of being asked: “Can you sum up in a sentence or two our best case for going after Iraq?” [Date the public knew: 1/8/03]

Early Feb 2002

Daniel Pearl beheaded. [Date the public knew: 2/21/02]

Feb 2002

“I was asked by one of the senior commanders of Central Command to go into his office. We did, the door was closed, and he turned to me, and he said, ‘Senator, we have stopped fighting the war on terror in Afghanistan. We are moving military and intelligence personnel and resources out of Afghanistan to get ready for a future war in Iraq.'”—Sen. Bob Graham. [Date the public knew: 3/26/04]

Feb 2002

<!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1051" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="" style="'width:48pt;height:67.8pt'"> <v:imagedata src="file:///C:\Users\user\AppData\Local\Temp\msohtmlclip1\01\clip_image045.jpg" o:href="https://motherjones.com/wp-content/uploads/images/ashcroft.jpg"/> </v:shape><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->< DIA intelligence summary notes that Libi’s “confession” lacks details and suggests that he is most likely telling interrogators what he thinks will “retain their interest.” Also states: “Saddam’s regime is intensely secular and is wary of Islamic revolutionary movements. Moreover, Baghdad is unlikely to provide assistance to a group it cannot control.” [Date the public knew: 10/26/05]

2/7/02

Presidential directive defines Taliban and Al Qaeda detainees as “enemy combatants” exempt from prisoner-of-war protections.

2/12/02

With “profound sadness,” Ken Lay refuses to testify before Congress.

2/12/02

Attorney General John Ashcroft calls on “all Americans to be on the highest state of alert.”

2/13/02

Total Information Awareness program leaked.

2/26/02

Former Ambassador Joseph Wilson sent to Niger to check out claims Iraq buying uranium-rich yellowcake. [Date the public knew: 7/6/03]

March 2002

“Fuck Saddam. We’re taking him out.”—Bush to Rice and three senators. [Date the public knew: 12/8/03]

March 2002

As The New Yorker later reports: “Chalabi’s defector reports were now flowing from the Pentagon directly to the Vice President’s office, and then on to the President, with little prior evaluation by intelligence professionals.” [Date the public knew: 10/27/03]

3/5/02

Joe Wilson tells CIA there’s no indication that Iraq is buying yellowcake. [Date the public knew: 7/6/03]

3/8/02

<!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1052" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="" style="'width:57pt;height:67.8pt'"> <v:imagedata src="file:///C:\Users\user\AppData\Local\Temp\msohtmlclip1\01\clip_image046.jpg" o:href="https://motherjones.com/wp-content/uploads/images/graham.jpg"/> </v:shape><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->< First of Downing Street memos prepared by Tony Blair’s top national security aides. “There is no greater threat now than in recent years that Saddam will use WMD…Washington believes the legal basis for an attack on Iraq already exists…Regime change has no basis in international law.” [Date the public knew: 9/18/04]

3/12/02

Color-coded terror alert system introduced.

3/13/02

Bush on Osama: “I’ll repeat what I said. I truly am not that concerned about him.”

3/14/02

Downing Street memo: “Condi’s enthusiasm for regime change is undimmed…Bush has yet to find the answers to the big questions…what happens the morning after?” [Date the public knew: 9/18/04]

3/15/02

British intel reports that there’s only “sporadic and patchy” evidence of Iraqi WMD. “There is no intelligence on any [biological weapons] production facilities.” [Date the public knew: 9/18/04]

3/22/02

Downing Street memo: “US scrambling to establish a link between Iraq and Al Qaida is so far frankly unconvincing…We are still left with a problem of bringing public opinion to accept the imminence of a threat from Iraq…Regime change does not stack up. It sounds like a grudge between Bush and Saddam.” [Date the public knew: 9/18/04]

3/24/02

Saddam “is actively pursuing nuclear weapons at this time.”—Cheney on CNN

3/25/02

Downing Street memo: “There has been no credible evidence to link Iraq with Al Qaida…In the documents so far presented it has been hard to glean whether the threat from Iraq is so significantly different from that of Iran or North Korea as to justify action.” [Date the public knew: 9/18/04]

Late March 2002

Cheney tells Republican senators that the question is no longer if the US will invade Iraq but when. [Date the public knew: 5/5/02]

3/28/02

Pakistani forces capture Al Qaeda “operations chief ” Abu Zubaydah and CIA ferrets him away to underground interrogation facility in Thailand. Bush told he’s mentally unstable and really only Al Qaeda’s travel agent. [Date the public knew: 11/2/05]

4/4/02

Blair visits Bush in Crawford to discuss Iraq. Bush tells Britain’s ITV: “I made up my mind that Saddam needs to go.”

4/8/02

Bush promotes “Operation TIPS” program to turn postal workers, bus drivers, meter readers, and even lobstermen into freelance government spies.

4/9/02

Bush calls Zubaydah one of “top operating officials of Al Qaeda, plotting…murder.” Later asks Tenet, “I said he was important; you’re not going to let me lose face on this are you?…Do some of those harsh methods really work?” Zubaydah is then tortured and speaks of all variety of plots. [Date the public knew: 6/20/06]

4/11/02

<!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1053" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="" style="'width:211.8pt;height:154.2pt'"> <v:imagedata src="file:///C:\Users\user\AppData\Local\Temp\msohtmlclip1\01\clip_image047.jpg" o:href="https://motherjones.com/wp-content/uploads/images/hugo_chavez425.jpg"/> </v:shape><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]--><img alt="" class="image image-preview " height="309" src="https://motherjones.com/wp-content/uploads/images/hugo_chavez425.jpg" ; title="" width="425">Hugo Chávez briefly removed from power in Venezuela in a US-endorsed coup.

May 2002

<!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1054" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="" style="'width:50.4pt;height:67.8pt'"> <v:imagedata src="file:///C:\Users\user\AppData\Local\Temp\msohtmlclip1\01\clip_image049.jpg" o:href="https://motherjones.com/wp-content/uploads/images/padilla.jpg"/> </v:shape><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]--><Primary corroborator of Curveball’s claims that Iraq has mobile weapons labs is judged a liar and Chalabi plant by DIA. A fabricator warning is posted in US intelligence databases. [Date the public knew: 3/28/04]

5/8/02

Jose Padilla arrested at O’Hare airport. [Date the public knew: 6/10/02]

5/18/02

The 2001 “Bin Laden Determined to Strike in US” warning leaked to press.

5/20/02

FBI Director Robert Mueller says another terrorist attack “inevitable.”

5/21/02

Asked if he has a plan to attack Iraq, Gen. Franks replies: “That’s a great question…my boss has not yet asked me to put together a plan to do that.”

5/21/02

Based on statements made by Zubaydah, FBI warns of attacks against railroads, Brooklyn Bridge, Statue of Liberty, and rushes agents to sites. [Date the public knew: 6/20/06]

5/23/02

Bush states opposition to 9/11 hearings. Senate subcommittee votes to subpoena administration about Enron.

5/24/02

FBI warns of Memorial Day attacks by scuba divers.

Summer 2002

French debunk yellowcake theory: “We told the Americans, ‘Bullshit. It doesn’t make any sense,'” says French official. [Date the public knew: 12/11/05]

June 2002

To a deputy raising doubts about Iraq war, Rice says: “Save your breath. The president has already made up his mind.” [Date the public knew: 1/7/04]

June 2002

Iraq bombing begins. Military will fly 21,736 sorties and attack 349 targets between now and the start of the war.

6/4/02

Karl Rove and GOP chair Ken Mehlman’s PowerPoint presentation for midterm strategy highlights “Focus on War and Economy.”

6/6/02

Coleen Rowley, the FBI agent who tried to alert her superiors to flight training taken by Zacarias Moussaoui, testifies before Congress.

6/10/02

In midst of 9/11 hearings, Ashcroft interrupts trip to Russia to announce arrest of Padilla, who’s now accused of “dirty bomb” plot. Declared an enemy combatant, he’ll be held four years without access to court system.

Mid-2002

Cheney and Scooter Libby begin meeting directly with CIA analysts. [Date the public knew: 6/5/03]

July 2002

<!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1055" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="" style="'width:46.2pt;height:67.8pt'"> <v:imagedata src="file:///C:\Users\user\AppData\Local\Temp\msohtmlclip1\01\clip_image050.jpg" o:href="https://motherjones.com/wp-content/uploads/images/libby.jpg"/> </v:shape><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->< Gen. Franks secretly requests $700 million for war preparations. Bush approves, unbeknownst to Congress. Money taken from appropriation for the war in Afghanistan. [Date the public knew: 4/18/04]

7/11/02

“Iraq is a very wealthy country. Enormous oil reserves. They can finance, largely finance, the reconstruction of their own country. And I have no doubt that they will.”—Richard Perle

7/15/02

Despite indications he was tortured into confession, Lindh cops to 20 years.

7/23/02

Downing Street memo written by foreign secretary after his visit with CIA’s Tenet and other US officials: “There was a perceptible shift in attitude. Military action was now seen as inevitable…The intelligence and facts were being fixed around the policy…The most likely timing in US minds for military action to begin was January, with the timeline beginning 30 days before the US Congressional elections.” [Date the public knew: 5/1/05]

Aug 2002

White House Iraq Group created to market war. Members include Rove, Libby, Rice, as well as spinmeisters Karen Hughes and Mary Matalin. [Date the public knew: 8/10/03]

8/1/02

Justice Department memo asserts that Bush’s wartime powers supersede international anti-torture laws and treaties, defines torture as only that which is “equivalent in intensity to the pain accompanying serious physical injury, such as organ failure, impairment of bodily function, or even death.” [Date the public knew: 6/8/04]

8/7/02

Bush given Iraq war plan by Gen. Franks.

8/20/02

“We may or may not attack. I have no idea yet.”—Bush. “There are Al Qaeda in Iraq…There are.”—Rumsfeld.

8/26/02

“There is no doubt that Saddam Hussein now has weapons of mass destruction. There is no doubt he is amassing them to use against our friends…and against us.” —Cheney

8/26/02

Newsweek reports prisoners abused by US allies in Afghanistan.

Sep 2002

Bombing against Iraq intensifies.

Sep 2002

Tyler Drumheller, CIA’s European operations chief, calls German Embassy in Washington seeking access to Curveball. Germans warn he’s “crazy” and “probably a fabricator.” [Date the public knew: 11/20/05]

9/3/02

Bush asks skeptical congressional leadership to support action against Iraq.

9/5/02

Upon hearing from Tenet that no National Intelligence Estimate had been produced to assess justification for war, Sen. Graham demands one.

9/7/02

“From a marketing point of view you don’t introduce new products in August.”—White House Chief of Staff Andy Card on rollout of the war

9/7/02

Bush claims a new UN International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) report states Iraq is six months from developing a nuclear weapon. There is no such report.

9/8/02

<!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1056" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="" style="'width:63pt;height:67.8pt'"> <v:imagedata src="file:///C:\Users\user\AppData\Local\Temp\msohtmlclip1\01\clip_image051.jpg" o:href="https://motherjones.com/wp-content/uploads/images/judith_miller.jpg"/> </v:shape><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->< Times story by Judith Miller and Michael Gordon cites anonymous administration officials saying Saddam has repeatedly tried to acquire aluminum tubes “specially designed” to enrich uranium. “The first sign of a ‘smoking gun,’ they argue, may be a mushroom cloud.”

9/8/02

Tubes “are only really suited for nuclear weapons programs…we don’t want the smoking gun to be a mushroom cloud.”—Rice on CNN

9/8/02

“We do know, with absolute certainty, that he is using his procurement system to acquire the equipment he needs in order to enrich uranium to build a nuclear weapon.”—Cheney on Meet the Press

9/10/02

Orange terror alert.

9/11/02

Bush marks 9/11 with Statue of Liberty backdrop.

9/12/02

Bush repeats aluminum-tube claim before UN General Assembly.

9/13/02

Cheney tells Rush Limbaugh: “What’s happening, of course, is we’re getting additional information that, in fact, Hussein is reconstituting his biological, chemical, and nuclear weapons programs.” There is no such new intel.

9/16/02

“The president hasn’t made a decision to do anything with respect to Iraq.”—Rumsfeld

9/16/02

White House economic adviser Lawrence Lindsey estimates Iraq war could cost $200 billion.

Mid-Sep 2002

American relatives of Iraqis sent as CIA moles return from Iraq. All 30 report Saddam has abandoned WMD programs. Intel buried in the CIA bureaucracy. President Bush never briefed. [Date the public knew: 1/3/06]

9/18/02

Bush calls Saddam’s offer to let inspectors back into Iraq “his latest ploy.”

9/19/02

Rumsfeld tells Congress that Saddam “has amassed large, clandestine stockpiles of chemical weapons, including VX, sarin, and mustard gas.”

9/19/02

Classified UK memo notes there’s “no definitive intelligence that [the aluminum tubes are] destined for a nuclear programme.” [Date the public knew: 9/24/02]

9/23/02

Institute for Science and International Security releases report calling the aluminum- tube intelligence ambiguous and warning that “U.S. nuclear experts who dissent from the Administration’s position are expected to remain silent. ‘The President has said what he has said, end of story,’ one knowledgeable expert said.”

9/24/02

Britain releases dossier to public saying Iraq could launch biological or chemical attack within 45 minutes. Dossier later determined to be “sexed up.”

9/25/02

“You can’t distinguish between Al Qaeda and Saddam when you talk about the war on terror.”—Bush

9/25/02

Citing Libi intel, Rice says: “High-ranking detainees have said that Iraq provided some training to Al Qaeda in chemical weapons development.”

9/26/02

Classified DIA assessment of Iraq’s chemical weapons concludes there is “no reliable information on whether Iraq is producing and stockpiling chemical weapons.” [Date the public knew: 5/30/03]

9/26/02

In a Rose Garden speech, Bush says: “The Iraqi regime possesses biological and chemical weapons.”

9/26/02

In a speech in Houston, Bush says of Saddam: “After all, this is a guy who tried to kill my dad.”

9/27/02

Rumsfeld calls link between Iraq and Al Qaeda “accurate and not debatable.”

9/28/02

Bush’s address to nation: “The Iraqi regime possesses biological and chemical weapons, is rebuilding the facilities to make more, and, according to the British government, could launch a biological or chemical attack in as little as 45 minutes after the order is given.”

Oct 2002

National Intelligence Estimate produced. It warns that Iraq “is reconstituting its nuclear program” and “has now established large-scale, redundant and concealed BW agent production capabilities”—an assessment based largely on Curveball’s statements. But NIE also notes that the State Department has assigned “low confidence” to the notion of “whether in desperation Saddam would share chemical or biological weapons with Al Qaeda.” Cites State Department experts who concluded that “the tubes are not intended for use in Iraq’s nuclear weapons program.” Also says “claims of Iraqi pursuit of natural uranium in Africa” are “highly dubious.” Only six senators bother to read all 92 pages. [Date the public knew: 7/18/03]

Oct 2002

<!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1057" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="" style="'width:45pt;height:67.8pt'"> <v:imagedata src="file:///C:\Users\user\AppData\Local\Temp\msohtmlclip1\01\clip_image052.jpg" o:href="https://motherjones.com/wp-content/uploads/images/al-zarqawi.jpg"/> </v:shape><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->< Administration decides not to take out Abu Musab al-Zarqawi because, though he is not yet working with Al Qaeda, any terrorist in Iraq helps case for war. “People were more obsessed with developing the coalition to overthrow Saddam than to execute the president’s policy of preemption against terrorists,” a former NSC member later says. [Date the public knew: 3/2/04]

Oct 2-24, 2002

DC-area sniper attacks.

10/4/02

Asked by Sen. Graham to make gist of NIE public, Tenet produces 25-page document titled “Iraq’s Weapons of Mass Destruction Programs.” It says Saddam has them and omits dissenting views contained in the classified NIE.

10/4/02

Knight Ridder reports: “Several senior administration officials and intelligence officers, all of whom spoke only on the condition of anonymity, charged that the decision to publicize one analysis of the aluminum tubes and ignore the contrary one is typical of the way the administration has been handling intelligence about Iraq.”

10/6/02

NSC memo to White House warning of the Niger uranium claim: “The evidence is weak…the Africa story is overblown.” [Date the public knew: 4/23/06]

10/7/02

Bush delivers a speech in which he says, “Facing clear evidence of peril, we cannot wait for the final proof—the smoking gun—that could come in the form of a mushroom cloud.” Also says Iraq is exploring ways of using drones to target the US, although Iraq’s drones have a reach of only 300 miles.

10/7/02

CIA Deputy Director John McLaughlin, writing for Tenet, sends a letter to Congress declaring that the likelihood of Saddam using WMD unless attacked is “very low.” [Date the public knew: 10/8/02]

10/8/02

Knight Ridder reports: “[A] growing number of military officers, intelligence professionals and diplomats in his own government privately have deep misgivings about the administration’s double-time march toward war. These officials charge that administration hawks have exaggerated evidence of the threat that Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein poses…’Analysts at the working level in the intelligence community are feeling very strong pressure from the Pentagon to cook the intelligence books,’ said one official, speaking on condition of anonymity.”

10/11/02

Congress—including all serious Democratic contenders—votes to grant Bush power to go to war.

10/16/02

Bush tells public, “I have not ordered the use of force. I hope the use of force will not become necessary.”

10/20/02

Saddam empties prisons.

10/21/02

In Lackawanna, New York, six American citizens of Yemeni descent are hyped as a “sleeper cell” and indicted on terror charges despite scant evidence.

Nov 2002

CIA station chiefs from Middle East gather for a secret meeting at the US Embassy in London. The message: War is inevitable, just a few months away. [Date the public knew: 1/3/06]

Nov 2002

At largest CIA prison in Afghanistan, code-named Salt Pit, a case officer orders guards to strip a young detainee naked, chain him to the concrete floor, and leave him overnight. He freezes to death. [Date the public knew: 3/3/05]

11/5/02

GOP gains control of Senate.

11/7/02

“War is not my first choice. It’s my last choice.”—Bush

11/8/02

UN Security Council passes Resolution 1441 offering Iraq “a final opportunity to comply with its disarmament obligations.” Iraq agrees and UN weapons inspectors return.

11/14/02

Rumsfeld handicaps war length: “Five days or five weeks or five months, but it certainly isn’t going to last any longer than that.”

11/25/02

Bush elevates Homeland Security Department to Cabinet.

11/27/02

Weapons inspections begin in Iraq.

12/2/02

<!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1058" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="" style="'width:54.6pt;height:67.8pt'"> <v:imagedata src="file:///C:\Users\user\AppData\Local\Temp\msohtmlclip1\01\clip_image053.jpg" o:href="https://motherjones.com/wp-content/uploads/images/rumsfeld.jpg"/> </v:shape><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->< Rumsfeld signs off on “Category III” interrogation techniques including “the use of scenarios designed to convince the detainee that death or severely painful consequences are imminent for him and/or his family.” It is later shown that these methods are torture as defined in US federal law, and that DOD knew that at the time. [Date the public knew: 6/22/04]

12/6/02

White House sacks Lindsey over war cost estimates.

12/7/02

Iraq submits a 12,200-page declaration to the UN documenting all its unconventional arms. US discredits the report because it does not mention the tubes or the Niger uranium.

12/21/02

Asked by Bush if there’s any reason to doubt existence of WMD, Tenet says: “It’s a slam-dunk case.” [Date the public knew: 4/17/04]

12/31/02

New war cost estimate generated: $50-$60 billion.

12/31/02

“You said we’re headed to war in Iraq. I don’t know why you say that…I’m the person who gets to decide, not you.”—Bush to press corps

Jan 2003

CIA balks at being made to bolster weak WMD intel. In a heated conversation with Scooter Libby, CIA’s McLaughlin says: “I’m not going back to the well on this. We’ve done our work.” [Date the public knew: 10/3/05]

Jan 2003

Faith-based czar John DiIulio dubs Bushies “Mayberry Machiavellis.”

Jan 2003

National Intelligence Council warns Bush that war in Iraq could lead to an anti-US insurgency and “increase popular sympathy for terrorist objectives.” [Date the public knew: 10/30/04]

1/3/03

“The Iraqi regime is a threat to any American.”—Bush

1/9/03

<!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1059" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="" style="'width:49.2pt;height:67.8pt'"> <v:imagedata src="file:///C:\Users\user\AppData\Local\Temp\msohtmlclip1\01\clip_image054.jpg" o:href="https://motherjones.com/wp-content/uploads/images/blix.jpg"/> </v:shape><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->< Mohamed ElBaradei, head of the U.N.’s IAEA, echoes DOE’s view that the aluminum tubes sought by Iraq are likely for artillery rockets, not centrifuges. A senior Bush official responds, “I think the Iraqis are spinning the IAEA.”

1/9/03

After nearly two months, UN’s Hans Blix says his inspectors have not found any “smoking guns” in Iraq.

1/11/03

<!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1060" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="" style="'width:139.8pt;height:90pt'"> <v:imagedata src="file:///C:\Users\user\AppData\Local\Temp\msohtmlclip1\01\clip_image055.jpg" o:href="https://motherjones.com/wp-content/uploads/images/bush3-425.jpg"/> </v:shape><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]--><Bush tells Saudi ambassador Prince Bandar that he plans to go to war two days before he tells Secretary Powell. [Date the public knew: 4/18/04]

1/20/03

Bush signs presidential directive giving Pentagon control over postwar Iraq.

1/24/03

IAEA tells Washington Post, “It may be technically possible that the tubes could be used to enrich uranium, but you’d have to believe that Iraq deliberately ordered the wrong stock and intended to spend a great deal of time and money reworking each piece.”

1/27/03

UN press release: “It would appear…Iraq had decided in principle to…bring the disarmament task to completion through the peaceful process of inspection.” Weapons inspectors have examined 106 locations and found “no evidence that Iraq had revived its nuclear weapons programme.”

1/28/03

In State of the Union, Bush says “the 16 words”: “The British government has learned that Saddam Hussein recently sought significant quantities of uranium from Africa.” Bush adds Saddam has “tried to purchase high-strength aluminum tubes suitable for nuclear weapons production” and has “mobile biological weapons labs.”

1/29/03

“Iraq poses a serious and mounting threat to our country.”—Rumsfeld

1/31/03

Notes of meeting between Bush and Blair make clear Bush intends to invade Iraq even if UN inspectors found no evidence of WMD. Bush told Blair he’d considered “flying U2 reconnaissance planes…over Iraq, painted in UN colours” to tempt Iraqi forces to fire on them, which would constitute a breach of UN resolutions. [Date the public knew: 2/3/06]

2/1/03

During UN speech rehearsal, Powell throws draft written by Libby into the air and says: “I’m not reading this. This is bullshit.” [Date the public knew: 6/9/03]

2/4/03

After reading draft of Powell’s speech, CIA agent emails his superior with concerns about “the validity of the information based on ‘CURVE BALL.'” Noting he’s the only US agent to have ever met Curveball (who was hung over at the time), the agent asks: “We sure didn’t give much credence to this report when it came out. Why now?” Deputy head of CIA’s Iraqi Task Force responds: “Let’s keep in mind the fact that this war’s going to happen regardless of what Curveball said or didn’t say…the Powers That Be probably aren’t terribly interested in whether Curveball knows what he’s talking about.” [Date the public knew: 7/9/04]

2/4/03

CIA’s Drumheller makes personal appeal to Tenet to delete Curveball’s intel from UN speech. Date the public knew: 6/25/06

2/4/03

Powell asks Tenet to personally assure intel for speech is good. Tenet does. [Date the public knew: 6/25/06]

2/5/03

<!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1061" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="" style="'width:143.4pt;height:111.6pt'"> <v:imagedata src="file:///C:\Users\user\AppData\Local\Temp\msohtmlclip1\01\clip_image057.jpg" o:href="https://motherjones.com/wp-content/uploads/images/powell425.jpg"/> </v:shape><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->< UN speech, Powell says, “Every statement I make today is backed up by sources, solid sources. These are not assertions. What we’re giving you are facts and conclusions based on solid intelligence.” Cites Libi’s claims and Curveball’s “eyewitness” accounts of mobile weapons labs. (German officer who supervised Curveball’s handler will later recall thinking, “Mein Gott!”) Powell also claims that Saddam’s son Qusay has ordered WMD removed from palace complexes; that key WMD files are being driven around Iraq by intelligence agents; that bioweapons warheads have been hidden in palm groves; that a water truck at an Iraqi military installation is a “decontamination vehicle” for chemical weapons; that Iraq has drones it can use for bioweapons attacks; and that WMD experts have been corralled into one of Saddam’s guest houses. All but the last of those claims had been flagged by the State Department’s own intelligence unit as “WEAK.” [Date the public knew: 7/18/03]

2/6/03

Reiterating Powell’s claim, Bush says an Iraqi drone loaded with bioweapons could strike US mainland. The US Air Force is on the record as saying that “the small size of Iraq’s new UAV strongly suggests a primary role of reconnaissance.” [Date the public knew: 9/26/03]

2/7/03

Rumsfeld ups war length estimate: “It could last…six days, six weeks. I doubt six months.”

2/7/03

Three State Department bureau chiefs prepare a secret memo warning that “serious planning gaps for postconflict public security and humanitarian assistance…could result in serious human rights abuses, which would undermine an otherwise successful military campaign, and our reputation internationally.” [Date the public knew: 8/18/05]

2/7/03

As anti-war demonstrations increase, DHS Secretary Ridge warns of Al Qaeda “credible threats” and raises the terror alert level to orange.

2/8/03

UN’s Team Bravo, led by American bioweapons experts, searches Curveball’s former work site in Iraq and disproves many of his claims. [Date the public knew: 11/20/05]

2/8/03

In radio address to the nation, Bush warns that “firsthand witnesses [read: Curveball] have informed us that Iraq has at least seven mobile factories” for germ warfare.

2/10/03

DHS advises Americans to stock up on plastic sheeting and duct tape to protect themselves against radiological or biological attack.

2/14/03

Blix again tells UN Security Council that Iraq appears to be cooperating with inspectors.

2/15/03

Largest demonstrations in history. In 600 cities worldwide, millions protest war.

2/20/03

Rumsfeld: “There is no question but that [the invasion] would be welcomed.” Later says: “Never said that. Never did…You may remember it well, but you’re thinking of somebody else.”

2/23/03

“UN weapons inspectors are being seriously deceived…It reminds me of the way the Nazis hoodwinked Red Cross officials.”—Perle

2/25/03

Gen. Eric Shinseki tells Congress “several hundred thousand troops” will be needed to occupy Iraq. Rumsfeld retaliates, naming Shinseki’s successor 14 months before the end of his term.

2/27/03

US diplomat John Brady Kiesling resigns, citing the “distortion of intelligence” and “systematic manipulation of American opinion.”

2/27/03

Wolfowitz tells congressional hearing: “I am reasonably certain that they will greet us as liberators…the notion of hundreds of thousands of American troops is way off the mark.”

3/1/03

Iraq destroys four missiles, meeting a UN deadline to begin disarming.

3/3/03

IAEA official tells US that the Niger uranium documents were forgeries so error-filled that “they could be spotted by someone using Google.”

3/7/03

US, Britain, and Spain present a revised draft resolution giving Saddam an ultimatum to disarm by March 17 or face the possibility of war. France refuses to sign on to ultimatum.

3/7/03

Blix tells UN Security Council that there’s “no evidence” of mobile bioweapons facilities in Iraq.

3/7/03

“After three months of intrusive inspections, we have to date found no evidence or plausible indication of the revival of a nuclear weapon program in Iraq.”—IAEA’s ElBaradei

3/8/03

On CNN, Joe Wilson says, “I think it’s safe to say that the US government should have or did know that [the Niger documents were] fake before Dr. ElBaradei mentioned it in his report at the UN yesterday.” Decision to discredit Wilson made at a meeting within the Office of the Vice President. [Date the public knew: 5/3/04]

3/8/03

“We are doing everything we can to avoid war in Iraq.”—Bush

3/15/03

Bush, Tony Blair, and Spain’s president have “emergency summit.” Bush gives UN one day to find a diplomatic solution.

3/16/03

<!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1062" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="" style="'width:52.2pt;height:67.8pt'"> <v:imagedata src="file:///C:\Users\user\AppData\Local\Temp\msohtmlclip1\01\clip_image059.jpg" o:href="https://motherjones.com/wp-content/uploads/images/blair.jpg"/> </v:shape><![endif]--><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->< Cheney on Meet the Press: “We believe he has, in fact, reconstituted nuclear weapons.” (Cheney later claims he misspoke.) Adds, “I really do believe that we will be greeted as liberators.”

3/17/03

Threat level elevated to orange.

3/17/03

US and UK fail to secure UN resolution authorizing use of force. Bush gives Saddam 48 hours to surrender.

3/18/03

Washington Post article headlined “Bush Clings to Dubious Allegations About Iraq” notes, “As the Bush administration prepares to attack Iraq this week, it is doing so on the basis of a number of allegations against Iraqi President Saddam Hussein that have been challenged—and in some cases disproved—by the United Nations, European governments and even U.S. intelligence reports.” Story is buried on Page A13.

3/20/03

War begins.

 

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20 Mar 2013 - It's widely believed that when America invaded Iraq, Bush and Cheney had no evidence linking Saddam Hussein to 9/11 and knew that the ...
Iraq anniversary: war intelligence 'was a lie', BBC Panorama ...
17 Mar 2013 - The documentary will reignite questions over the legality and justification of the Iraq war. One source told the programme the conflict was borne ...
The Lies We Believed (And Still Believe) About Iraq ...
27 Jun 2014 - In 935 Lies, Lewis details the carefully orchestrated campaign of untruths ... [2] But in regard to the Iraq War, it seems, facts are now irrelevant or at least .... It's hard to tell without unfettered access to the principals and their ...
Study: Bush, aides made 935 false statements in run-up to war

http://edition.cnn.com/2008/POLITICS/01/23/bush.iraq/

 

  • STORY HIGHLIGHTS

  • Study searched database for statements by Bush, aides, in 2001-2003

  • Bush made 260 false statements about Iraqi weapons, al Qaeda, study says

  • Study accuses former Secretary of State Colin Powell of 244 false statements

  • Also on the list: Cheney, Rumsfeld, Rice, former White House spokesmen


24 Jan 2008 - WASHINGTON (CNN) -- President Bush and his top aides publicly made 935 false statements about the security risk posed by Iraq in the two ...
9/11 and Iraq: The War's Greatest Lie « Antiwar.com Blog

 

9/11 and Iraq: The War’s Greatest Lie

John Glaser Posted on March 18, 2013

<!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_i1064" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="800px-Flickr_-_World_Economic_Forum_-_Dick_Cheney_-_World_Economic_Forum_Annual_Meeting_2004_(1)" style="'width:280.2pt;height:109.8pt'"> <v:imagedata src="file:///C:\Users\user\AppData\Local\Temp\msohtmlclip1\01\clip_image060.jpg" o:href="https://antiwar.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/800px-Flickr_-_World_Economic_Forum_-_Dick_Cheney_-_World_Economic_Forum_Annual_Meeting_2004_1.jpg"/> </v:shape><![endif]--> <!--[if !vml]--> 800px-Flickr_-_World_Economic_Forum_-_Dick_Cheney_-_World_Economic_Forum_Annual_Meeting_2004_(1) <!--[endif]-->

The Bush administration’s primary justification for launching the Iraq War is thought, probably correctly, to be an alleged WMD program that did not exist. The coterie of delusional neoconservatives surrounding Bush and Cheney contributed to a systematic process of cherry-picking dubious intelligence and outright manipulation of evidence in order to satisfy a political decision that had already been made to change the regime in Iraq through a war of aggression.

The historical record pretty clearly demonstrates the distortions the administration employed to make the case that Saddam Hussein had WMDs. Inspectors who said they didn’t exist were ignored, false stories about aluminum tubes and yellowcake from Africa were peddled assertively, Iraqi defectors that were known liars were used as anonymous sources alleging Saddam’s WMD development, etc.

The plan eventually worked. The administration’s expressed certainty was persuasive to Americans. “Simply stated, there is no doubt that Saddam Hussein now has weapons of mass destruction,” Dick Cheney said in a 2002 speech. “There is no doubt he is amassing them to use against our friends, against our allies, and against us.” No doubt.

But as central as these false claims about Saddam’s WMDs were to the propaganda campaign for war, I believe what will be most remembered is the claim of an operational connection between Saddam Hussein and al-Qaeda.

Significant portions of Americans still believe that Saddam and al-Qaeda were in cahoots and cooperated in the 9/11 attacks. The reason is simple: the administration told them this lie.

An investigation by a committee in the House of Representatives in 2004 identified “237 misleading statements about the threat posed by Iraq that were made by President Bush, Vice President Cheney, Secretary Rumsfeld, Secretary Powell, and National Security Advisor Rice. These statements were made in 125 separate appearances, consisting of 40 speeches, 26 press conferences and briefings, 53 interviews, 4 written statements, and 2 congressional testimonies.” According to the committee, at least 61 separate statements “misrepresented Iraq’s ties to al-Qaeda.” A Senate investigation in 2006 also covered these lies.

Keeping this lie afloat took some work. The Bush administration, primarily Dick Cheney and Don Rumsfeld, “applied relentless pressure on interrogators to use harsh methods on detainees in part to find evidence of cooperation between al Qaida and the late Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein’s regime,” McClatchy reported in 2009.

According to Lawrence Wilkerson, chief of staff to Bush’s Secretary of State Powell, “the administration authorized harsh interrogation” in 2002, and “its principal priority for intelligence was not aimed at pre-empting another terrorist attack on the U.S. but discovering a smoking gun linking Iraq and al-Qa’ida.”

Ibn al-Shaykh al-Libi, the detainee captured in Afghanistan in November 2001, eventually provided that smoking gun. He claimed knowledge of an Iraq-Qaeda connection because it was tortured out of him. The Bush administration cited it as evidence for the Iraq War’s greatest lie.

Other lies were told to this effect. Two months after the 9/11 attacks, on December 9, 2001, Dick Cheney went on Meet the Press and, when asked by Tim Russert whether “Iraq was involved in September 11,” mentioned a “report that’s been pretty well confirmed, that [9/11 hijacker Mohammed Atta] did go to Prague and he did meet with a senior official of the Iraqi intelligence service in Czechoslovakia last April, several months before the attack.”

In fact, the CIA had told Cheney this report was false a day before his Meet the Press appearance. In a briefing that was sent to the White House Situation Room, the CIA concluded that “11 September 2001 hijacker Mohamed Atta did not travel to the Czech Republic on 31 May 2000.” Cheney cited it anyways.

Two years later, on September 14, 2003, Cheney appeared once again on Meet the Press. Russert asked him if he was “surprised” by the fact that “69 percent” of Americans believe Saddam “was involved in the September 11 attacks.”

“I think it’s not surprising that people make that connection,” Cheney said. “With respect to 9/11, of course, we’ve had the story that’s been public out there. The Czechs alleged that Mohamed Atta, the lead attacker, met in Prague with a senior Iraqi intelligence official five months before the attack, but we’ve never been able to develop anymore of that yet either in terms of confirming it or discrediting it.” In reality, it had been conclusively discredited years earlier.

As Paul Pillar, former CIA analyst and National Intelligence Officer for the Near East and South Asia, wrote in his recent book: “The supposed alliance between Saddam’s regime and al-Qa’ida clearly did not drive the Bush administration’s decision to launch the war [in Iraq] because the administration was receiving no indications that any such alliance existed,” adding that “this fact did not stop the administration from nonetheless promoting publicly the notion of such an alliance.”

By August 2003, after another year that included the most intensive selling of the war, more than two-thirds of Americans thought Saddam had been involved in 9/11. Some of this belief was due to innuendo such as the vice president’s repeated references to a phantom meeting in Prague between an Iraqi and 9/11 hijacker Mohammed Atta. It was due mostly to the administration’s rhetorical drumbeat that repeatedly mentioned Iraq, 9/11, and “war on terror” in the same breath.

Pillar is right: the Saddam-Qaeda connection did not drive the Bush administration’s decision to go to war with Iraq. But it did drive the administration’s propaganda campaign to generate public support for the war.

This was absolutely critical to the blank check that the vast majority of Americans gave to Bush and Cheney to go to war. Alleged WMDs, I think, could never have achieved the level of popular support for war crimes against Iraq on its own. The pain and indignation Americans felt after being attacked on 9/11 needed to be exploited for a war of choice as brazen as Iraq to gain support. And the record is clear that the Bush administration fostered this deception, employing torture and citing false intelligence to do so.

The record is clear, but the CIA is still trying to cover it up, as Marcy Wheeler has recently noted.

Many lies were told to justify the Iraq War. But none were as baseless and vital as this one. At the risk of joining the parade of idiots predicting “the judgement of history” on Iraq, I would anticipate the Saddam-Qaeda connection lie as the most important, far surpassing the more popularized WMD claims.

https://www.antiwar.com/blog/2013/03/18/911-and-iraq-the-wars-greatest-lie/


18 Mar 2013 - Many lies were told to justify the Iraq War. But none were as baseless and vital as this one. At the risk of joining the parade of idiots predicting ...
The Bush Administration's Top 40 Lies about War and ...
https://www.commondreams.org/views03/0730-06.htm

30 Jul 2003 - 1) The administration was not bent on war with Iraq from 9/11 onward. ... She told the London Guardian that Bush and Blair made a secret pact ...
Dirty war Col. James Steele The man without human feeling mastermind of divide and conquer. An Evil Head and a Evil Heart are always a formidable and frightening combination. 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Steele_%28US_Colonel%29 
Hugo Chávez once stated that "the American empire is the greatest menace to our planet." Can see Andrew H2 months ago And Americans wonder why ISIS exists. 
Cannot see Racca Soko 3 months ago 
From this expose', it is clear that the ISIS uprising in the region is a self defense against the death squad commandos that were trained by the United States to commit atrocities against the Sunni in Iraq. 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m2j-5Ie0gZ8


Untold Story of the Iraq War ~ Commandos, Dirty Wars and Col. James Steele Strummered 8 Mar 2013 21:16 “Those who do not learn from history are doomed to repeat it” - George Santayana 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BxHEI603bF4 
USA Timeline of United States military operations
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_United_States_military_operations
United States bombings of other countries
http://williamblum.org/chapters/rogue-state/united-states-bombings-of-other-countries
US Bombing campaigns since 1945
https://wikispooks.com/wiki/US_Bombing_campaigns_since_1945

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Western Democracy P1

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Is Western Democracy Real Democracy?

 

 

FACTS The U.S. Has Been At War 222 Out of 239 Years

 

 

The Untold History of US Wars ...- Truthout 

Peter Kuznick discusses the United Stateswar crimes — from the atomic ... In the book The Untold History of the United States, Oliver Stone and you .... of its population … we cannot fail to be the object of envying resentment.

 

Interview  The Untold History of US Wars

In this interview, professor Peter Kuznick speaks of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagazaki; US crimes and lies behind the Vietnam war, and what was really behind that inhumane invasion; why the US engaged a Cold War with the Soviet Union, and how that war and the mainstream media influences the world today; the interests behind the assassinations of President Kennedy; US imperialism towards Latin America, during the Cold War and today, under the false premise of War on Terror and War on Drugs.

Edu Montesanti: Professor Peter Kuznick, thank you so very much for granting me this interview. In the book The Untold History of the United States, Oliver Stone and you reveal that the the launch of the atomic bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki by President Harry Truman was militarily unnecessary, and the reasons behind it. Would you comment these versions, please?

Peter Kuznick: It is interesting to me that when I speak to people from outside the United States, most think the atomic bombings were unnecessary and unjustifiable, but most Americans still believe that the atomic bombs were actually humane acts because they saved the lives of not only hundreds of thousands of Americans who would have died in an invasion but of millions of Japanese.

That is a comforting illusion that is deeply held by many Americans, especially older ones. It is one of the fundamental myths emanating from World War II. It was deliberately propagated by President Truman, Secretary of War Henry Stimson, and many others who also spread the erroneous information that the atomic bombs forced Japanese surrender. Truman claimed in his memoirs that the atomic bombs saved a half million American lives.

President George H.W. Bush later raised that number to “millions.” The reality is that the atomic bombings neither saved American lives nor did they contribute significantly to the Japanese decision to surrender. They may have actually delayed the end of the war and cost American lives. They certainly cost hundreds of thousands of Japanese lives and injured many more.

As the January 1946 report by the US War Department made clear, there was very little discussion of the atomic bombings by Japanese officials leading up to their decision to surrender. This has recently been acknowledged somewhat stunningly by the official National Museum of the US Navy in Washington, DC, which states, “The vast destruction wreaked by the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the loss of 135,000 people made little impact on the Japanese military. However, the Soviet invasion of Manchuria … changed their minds.” Few Americans realize that six of America’s seven five star admirals and generals who earned their fifth star during the war are on record as saying that the atomic bombs were either militarily unnecessary or morally reprehensible or both.

That list includes Generals Douglas MacArthur, Dwight Eisenhower, and Henry “Hap” Arnold and Admirals William Leahy, Ernest King, and Chester Nimitz. Leahy, who was chief of staff to presidents Roosevelt and Truman, called the atomic bombings violations of “every Christian ethic I have ever heard of and all of the known laws of war.” He proclaimed that the “Japanese were already defeated and ready to surrender … The use of this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of no material assistance in our war against Japan. In being the first to use it we adopted an ethical standard common to the barbarians of the dark ages.”

Eisenhower agreed that the Japanese were already defeated. MacArthur said that the Japanese would have surrendered months earlier if the US had told them they could keep the emperor, which the US did ultimately allow them to do.

What really happened? By spring 1945, it was clear to most Japanese leaders that victory was impossible. In February 1945, Prince Fumimaro Konoe, former Japanese prime minister, wrote to Emperor Hirohito, “I regret to say that Japan’s defeat is inevitable.”

The same sentiment was expressed by the Supreme War Council in May when it declared that “Soviet entry into the war will deal a death blow to the Empire” and was repeated frequently thereafter by Japanese leaders.

The US, which had broken Japanese codes and was intercepting Japanese cables, was fully aware of Japan’s increasing desperation to end the war if the US would ease its demand for “unconditional surrender.” Not only was Japan getting battered militarily, it’s railroad system was in tatters and its food supply was shrinking. Truman himself referred to the intercepted July 18 cable as “the telegram from the Jap emperor asking for peace.” American leaders also knew that what Japan really dreaded was the possibility of a Soviet invasion, which they maneuvered unsuccessfully to forestall.

The Japanese leaders did not know that at Yalta Stalin had agreed to come into the Pacific War three months after the end of the fighting in Europe. But Truman knew this and understood the significance. As early as April 11, 1945, the Joint Intelligence Staff of the Joint Chiefs of Staff was reporting that “If at any time the USSR should enter the war, all Japanese will realize that absolute defeat is inevitable.”

At Potsdam in mid-July, when Truman received Stalin’s confirmation that the Soviets were coming into the war, Truman rejoiced and wrote in his diary, “Fini Japs when that comes about.” The next day he wrote home to his wife, “We’ll end the war a year sooner now, and think of the kids who won’t be killed.”

So there were two ways to expedite the end of the war without dropping atomic bombs. The first was to change the demand for unconditional surrender and inform the Japanese that they could keep the emperor, which most American policymakers wanted to do anyway because they saw the emperor as key to postwar stability. The second was to wait for the Soviet invasion, which began at midnight on August 8.

It was the invasion that proved decisive not the atomic bombs, whose effects took longer to register and were more localized. The Soviet invasion completely discredited Japan’s ketsu-go strategy. The powerful Red Army quickly demolished the Japan’s Kwantung Army. When Prime Minister Kantaro Suzuki was asked why Japan needed to surrender so quickly, he replied that if Japan delayed, “the Soviet Union will take not only Manchuria, Korea, Karafuto, but also Hokkaido.

This will destroy the foundation of Japan. We must end the war when we can deal with the United States.” The Soviet invasion changed the military equation; the atomic bombs, as terrible as they were, did not. The Americans had been firebombing Japanese cities for months. As Yuki Tanaka has shown, the US had already firebombed more than 100 Japanese cities.

Destruction reached as high as 99.5 percent in downtown Toyama. Japanese leaders had already accepted that the United States could wipe out Japanese cities. Hiroshima and Nagasaki were two more cities to vanquish, however thorough the destruction or horrific the details. But the Soviet invasion proved devastating as both American and Japanese leaders anticipated it would.

But the US wanted to use atomic bombs in part as a stern warning to the Soviets of what was in store for them if they interfered with US plans for postwar hegemony. That was exactly how Stalin and those around him in the Kremlin interpreted the bombings. US use of the bombs had little effect on Japanese leaders, but it proved a major factor in jumpstarting the Cold War.

And it put the world on a glide path to annihilation. Truman observed on at least three separate occasions that he was beginning a process that might result in the end of life on this planet and he plowed ahead recklessly. When he received word at Potsdam of how powerful the July 16 bomb test in New Mexico had been, he wrote in his diary, “We have discovered the most terrible bomb in the history of the world. It may be the fire destruction prophesied in the Euphrates Valley Era after Noah and his fabulous Ark.” So the atomic bombings contributed very little if anything to the end of the war, but they began a process that continues to threaten humanity with annihilation today — 70 plus years after the bombings. As Oliver Stone and I say in The Untold History of the United States, to kill innocent civilians is a war crime. To threaten humanity with extinction is far, far worse. It is the worst crime that can ever be committed.

In the Vietnam War’s chapter, it is revealed that the US armed forces conducted in that small country the launch of a greater number of bombs that all launched during World War II. Would you please detail it, and comment why you think it happened, professor Kuznick?

The US dropped more bombs against little Vietnam than had been dropped by all sided in all previous wars in history — three times as many as were dropped by all sides in WWII. That war was the worst atrocity — the worst example of foreign aggression — committed since the end of WWII. Nineteen million gallons of herbicide poisoned the countryside. Vietnam’s beautiful triple canopy forests were effectively eliminated. The US destroyed 9,000 of South Vietnam’s 15,000 hamlets.

It destroyed all six industrial cities in the North as well as 28 of 30 provincial towns and 96 of 116 district towns. It threatened to use nuclear weapons on numerous occasions. Among those who discussed and occasionally supported such use was Henry Kissinger. Former Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara told my students that he believes that 3.8 million Vietnamese died in the war.

Thus, the war was truly horrific and the Americans have never atoned for this crime. Instead of winning a Nobel Peace Prize for ending the war, Henry Kissinger should be in the dock in the Hague standing trial for having committed crimes against humanity.

Please speak of your experiences in the ’60s in Vietnam, and why the US decided to engage a war against that nation.

Oliver and I approached the war from different perspectives. He dropped out of Yale and volunteered for combat in Vietnam. He was wounded twice and won a medal for combat valor. I, on the other hand, was fiercely opposed to the US invasion of Vietnam from the start.

As a freshman in college, I started an anti-war group. I organized actively against the war. I hated it. I hated the people who were responsible for it. I thought they were all war criminals and still do. I attended many antiwar marches and spoke often at public events. I understood, as my friend Daniel Ellsberg likes to say, we weren’t on the wrong side. We were the wrong side.

The US got gradually involved. It first financed the French colonial war and then took over the fighting itself after the Vietnamese defeated the French. President Kennedy sent in 16,000 “advisers,” but realized the war was wrong and planned to end it if he hadn’t been killed. US motives were mixed. Ho was not only a nationalist, he was a communist. No US leader wanted to lose a war to the communists anywhere.

This was especially true after the communist victory in China in 1949. Many feared the domino effect — that Vietnam would lead to communist victories across Southeast Asia. That would leave Japan isolated and Japan, too, would eventually turn toward the communist bloc for allies and trading partners. So one motivation was geopolitical.

Another was economic. US leaders didn’t want to lose the cheap labor, raw materials, and markets in Indochina. Another reason was that the military-industrial complex in the US — the “defense” industries and the military leaders allied with them — got fat and prosperous from war. War was their reason for being and they profited handsomely from war in both inflated profits and promotions.

So it was a combination of maintaining US preeminence in the world, defending and exploiting US economic interests, and a perverse and corrosive anti-communist mentality that wanted to defeat the communists everywhere.

What were the real reasons behind the US Cold War with the Soviet Union?

George Kennan, the US State Department official who provided the theoretical rationale for the containment theory, laid out the economic motives behind the Cold War in a very illuminating memo in 1948 in which he said, “We have about 50 percent of the world’s wealth, but only 6.3 percent of its population … we cannot fail to be the object of envying resentment. Our real task in the coming period is to devise a pattern relationships which will permit us to maintain this position of disparity.” The US pursued this task. Sometimes that required supporting brutal dictatorships. Sometimes it required supporting democratic regimes. The fight occurred on the cultural as well as the political, ideological, and economic realms.

Henry Luce, the publisher of Time and Life Magazines, said, in 1941, that the 20th century must be the American century. The US would dominate the world. The US set out to do so. The Soviets, having been invaded twice through Eastern Europe, wanted a buffer zone between themselves and Germany. The US was opposed to such economic and political spheres that limited US economic penetration.

Although the US and the USSR, never went to war, they fought many dangerous proxy wars. Human beings are lucky to have survived this dismal era.

How do you see US politics towards Cuba since the Cuban Revolution, and towards Latin America in general since the Cold War?

The US completely controlled the Cuban economy and politics from the 1890s until the 1959 revolution. Batista carried water for US investors. The US had intervened repeatedly in Latin American affairs between 1890 and 1933 and then often again in the 1950s. Castro represented the first major break in that cycle.

The US wanted to destroy him and make sure that no one else in Latin America would follow his example. It failed. It didn’t destroy his revolution, but it guaranteed that it would not succeed economically or create the people’s democracy many hoped for.

However, it has succeeded in other ways. And the revolution has survived throughout the Cold War and since. It has inspired other Latin American revolutionaries despite all the US-backed and US-trained death squads that have patrolled the continent, leaving hundreds of thousands of dead in their wake.

The US School for the Americas has been instrumental in training the death squad leaders. Hugo Chavez and others have picked up where Fidel left off in inspiring the Latin American left. But many progressive leaders have been brought down in recent years.

Today Dilma Rouseff is fighting for her life but Evo Morales and Alvaro Garcie Linera in Bolivia are standing proud and standing tall to resist US efforts to again dominate and exploit Latin America. But across Latin America, progressive leaders have either been toppled or are being weakened by scandals. US-backed neoliberals are poised once again to loot local economies in the interest of foreign and domestic capitalists. It is not a pretty picture. The people will suffer immensely while some get rich.

According to your researches, Professor Kuznick, who killed President John Kennedy? What interests were behind that magnicide?

Oliver made a great movie about the Kennedy assassination — JFK. We didn’t feel that we needed to revisit those issues in our books and documentaries. We focused instead on what was lost to humanity when Kennedy was stolen from us. He had grown immensely during his short time in office.

He began as a Cold Warrior. By the end of his life, following the lessons he learned during the first two years of his administration and punctuated by the Cuban Missile Crisis, he wanted desperately to end the Cold War and nuclear arms race. Had he lived, as Robert McNamara stated, the world would have been fundamentally different.

The US would have withdrawn from Vietnam. Military expenditures would have dropped sharply. The US and the Soviets would have explored ways to work together. The arms race would have been transformed into a peace race. But he had his enemies in the military and intelligence communities and in the military sector of the economy.

He was also hated by the Southern segregationists, the Mafia, and the reactionary Cuban exile community. But those behind his assassination would much more likely have come from the military and intelligence wing.

We don’t know who did it, but we know whose interests were advanced by the assassination. Given all the holes in the official story as detailed by the Warren Commission, it is difficult to believe that Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone and that the magic bullet did all that damage.

Do you think US imperialism against the region today, especially attacks against progressive countries are in essence the same policy during the Cold War?

I don’t think the US wants a new cold war with a real rival that can compete around the globe. As the neocons proclaimed after the fall of the Soviet Union, the US really wants a unipolar world in which there is only one superpower and no rivals.

Progressive countries have fewer major allies today than they had during the Cold War. Russia and China provide some balance to the US, but they are not really progressive countries challenging the world capitalist order. They both are beset by their own internal problems and inequalities.

There are few democratic socialist models for the world to follow. The US has managed to subvert and sabotage most of the forward thinking and visionary governments. Hugo, despite all his excesses, was one such role model. He achieved great things for the poor in Venezuela. But if we look at what is happening now in Brazil, Argentina, Honduras, it is a very sad picture.

A new revolutionary wave is needed across the third world with new leaders committed to rooting out corruption and fighting for social justice. I am personally excited by recent developments in Bolivia, despite the results of the latest election.

How do you see the Cold War culture influences US and world society today, Professor Kuznick? What role the Washington regime and the mainstream media play on it?

The media are part of the problem. They have served to obfuscate rather than educate and enlighten. They inculcate the sense that there are dangers and enemies lurking everywhere, but they offer no positive solutions.

As, a result, people are driven by fear and respond irrationally. Former US Vice President Henry Wallace, one of America’s leading visionaries in the 20th century, responded to Winston Churchill’s Iron Curtain speech in 1946 by warning,

“The source of all our mistakes is fear … If these fears continue, the day will come when our sons and grandsons will pay for these fears with rivers of blood … Out of fear great nations have been acting like cornered beasts, thinking only of survival.”

This also operates on the personal level where people will sacrifice their freedoms to achieve greater security. We saw that play out in the US after 9/11. We’re seeing that now in France and Belgium.

The world is moving in the wrong direction. Inequality is growing. The richest 62 people in the world now have more wealth than the poorest 3.6 billion. That is obscene. There is no excuse for poverty and hunger in a world of such abundant resources. In this world, the media serve several purposes, the least of which is to inform the people and arm them with the information they need to change their societies and the world.

The media instead magnify people’s fears so that they will accept authoritarian regimes and militaristic solutions to problems that have no military solutions, provide mindless entertainment to distract people from real problems, and narcotize people into somnambulence and apathy.

This is especially a problem in the United States where many people believe there is a “free” press. Where there is a controlled press, people learn to approach the media with skepticism. Many gullible Americans don’t understand the more subtle forms of manipulation and deception.

In the US, the mainstream media rarely offer perspectives that challenge conventional thinking. For example, I’m constantly getting interviewed by leading media outlets in Russia, China, Japan, Europe, and elsewhere, but I’m rarely interviewed by media in the United States.

Nor do my progressive colleagues get invited onto mainstream US shows. So, yes, there is a certain measure of press freedom in the United States, but that freedom is undermined not by the government as much as it is by self-censorship and silencing of progressive voices. Much of the rest of the world is more open to criticizing the US, but not as forthright when it comes to criticizing their own governments’ policies.

What could you say about the idea that the current US “War on Terror” and even “War on Drugs” especially in Latin America are ways the US has found to replace the Cold War, and so expand its military power and world domination?

The US rejects the methods of the old colonial regimes. It has created a new kind of empire undergirded by between 800 and 1,000 overseas military bases from which US special forces operate in more than 130 countries each year.

Instead of invading forces consisting of large land armies, which has proven not to work in country after country, the US operates in more covert and less heavy-handed ways. Obama’s preferred method of killing is by drones.

These are of dubious legality and produce questionable results. They are certainly effective in killing people, but there is lots of evidence to suggest that for every “terrorist” they kill, they create 10 more in his or her place.

The War on Terror that the US and its allies have waged for the past 15 years has only created more terrorists. Military solutions rarely work. Different approaches are needed and they will have to begin with redistribution of the world’s resources in order to make people want to live rather than to kill and die. People need hope.

They need a sense of connection. They need to believe that a better life is possible for them and their children. Too many feel hopeless and alienated. The failure of the Soviet model has produced a vacuum in its place. As Marx warned long ago, Russia was too culturally and economically backward to serve as a model for global socialist development.

The Revolution was challenged from the start by invading capitalist forces. Problems abounded from the beginning. Then Stalinism brought its own spate of horrors. To the extent that the Soviet model became the world standard for revolutionary change, there was little hope for creating a decent world. Nor did the Chinese model provide a better standard.

So some have turned to radical Islam, which brings its own nightmare vision. As progressive governments continue to stumble and fall, US hegemony strengthens. But the US has had little positive to offer the world. Future generations will look back at this Pax Americana not as a period of enlightenment but one of constant war and growing inequality.

Democracy is great in principle but less uplifting in practice. And now with the nuclear threat intensifying and climate change also threatening the future existence of humanity, the future remains uncertain. The US will cling to wars on terror and wars on drugs to maintain the disparities that George Kennan outlined 68 years ago. But that is not the way forward.

The world may look upon US internal politics as a descent into lunacy — an amusing sign of the complete failure of American democracy — but the outsider success of Bernie Sanders and even the anti-establishment revolt among the Republican grassroots shows that Americans are hungry for change. Both Hillary Clinton and the Republican establishment, with their Wall Street ties and militaristic solutions, do not command respect outside of certain limited segments of the population.

They may win now, but their time is limited. People everywhere are desperate for new positive, progressive answers. Some, clearly, as we see now across Europe, will turn to rightwing demagogues in times of crisis, but that is at least in part because the left has failed to provide the leadership the world needs.

A revitalized left is the key to saving this planet. We’re running out of time though. The road ahead will not be easy. But we can and must prevail.

Peter Kuznick, a history professor and director of the Nuclear Studies Institute at American University, Washington D.C., with Oliver Stone co-authored the 10 part Showtime documentary film series and book, both titled The Untold History of the United States. A New Yorker who was active in the Civil Rights and anti-Vietnam War movements, and remains active in antiwar and nuclear abolition efforts, Professor Kuznick is also author of Beyond the Laboratory: Scientists As Political Activists in 1930s America (University of Chicago Press), co-author with Akira Kimura of Rethinking the Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: Japanese and American Perspectives (Horitsu Bunkasha, 2010), co-author with Yuki Tanaka of Genpatsu to Hiroshima – Genshiryoku Heiwa Riyo No Shinso [Nuclear Power and Hiroshima: The Truth Behind the Peaceful Use of Nuclear Power (Iwanami, 2011), and co-editor with James Gilbert of Rethinking Cold War Culture (Smithsonian Institution Press).

 

Edu Montesanti

Edu Montesanti is the author of Lies and Crimes of ‘War on Terror’ (Brazil, 2012; Mentiras e Crimes da ‘Guerra ao Terror’, original). Edu is a freelance journalist who writes for the Brazilian magazine Caros Amigos, Pravda Brazil, Pravda Report (Russia) and Global Research (Canada). Edu is a translator for Abuelas de Plaza de Mayo (Argentina), the Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan and used to translate for Malalaï Joya’s website (Afghanistan). Edu has also written for Diário Liberdade (Spain), and Observatório da Imprensa (Brazil TV). Visit Edu’s website.

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War Crime: NATO Deliberately Destroyed Libya’s Water Infrastructure

The deliberate destruction of a nation’s water infrastructure is not simply a war crime.

by  Nafeez AhmedThe Ecologist

May 30, 2015

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www.truth-out.org/opinion/item/35944-the-untold-history-of-us-war-crimes

List of Atrocities committed by US authorities

Definition: An extremely wicked or cruel act, typically one involving physical violence or injury.

"If there is a country that has committed unspeakable atrocities in the world, it is the United States of America. They don't care for human beings." - Nelson Mandela

Contents

Imperialism

Middle East

On April 14, 2018, the US, UK, and France launched 100 more missiles at 3 different targets in Syria, again claiming that the Syrian government used chemical attacks against its own citizens in douma as justification. On 10 April, the Syrian government again invited the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons to send a team to investigate the sites of the alleged attacks. Trump, Macron, and May have all issued statements saying that this is not an intervention in the Syrian civil war. 1

Starting in June 2017, photos and videos from Syrian civilians in Raqqa showed that the US-backed coalition in Syria was illegally using white phosphorus in civilian areas. White phosphorus can burn human flesh down to the bone, and wounds can reignite up to days later. “No matter how white phosphorus is used, it poses a high risk of horrific and long-lasting harm in crowded cities like Raqqa and Mosul and any other areas with concentrations of civilians,” said Steve Goose, arms director at Human Rights Watch. One attack on an internet cafe killed at least 20 civilians, while other deaths are still being confirmed. One of those civilians killed was in the process of sending a report to Humans Rights Watch, when the cafe was struck. The US killed 273 syrian civilians in April, slightly more than the number killed by ISIS. A US attack in July killed another 50 civilians. In August, the US killed another 60+ civilians. 1,2,3

On April 4th, 2017, following the Khan Shaykhun chemical attack, Trump ordered an airstrike of 59 tomahawk cruise missiles (worth $70 million) fired at the Shayrat air base in Syria (one that Trump claims is the source of the chemical attack) in the 2017 Shayrat Missile Strike. This is the first attack by the US directly targeting Ba'athist Syrian government forces, who are closely allied with Russia. Russian Prime Minister Dimitry Medvedev said the attack brought the U.S. "within an inch" of clashing with the Russian military, and could've sparked a nuclear war. The attack was praised by US politicians on both sides of the aisle, as well >30 countries. Over 700 children have been killed US coalition airstrikes in Iraq and Syria since August 2014. The US conducted another airstrike against Syria on June 7th, 2017.1

On March 21st, 2017, A US airstrike killed at least 30 Syrian civilians in an airstrike on a school in the Raqqa province. The week before, 49 people were killed when US warplanes fired on a target in in the 2017 al-Jinah airstrike, a village in western Aleppo province. US officials said the attack had hit a building where al-Qaeda operatives were meeting, but residents said the warplanes had struck a mosque where hundreds of people had gathered for a weekly religious meeting. 1

On March 17th, 2017, A US airstrike killed ~112 civilians in Mosul, Iraq. In response, US Defense Secretary James Mattis said, "There is no military force in the world that is proven more sensitive to civilian casualties." 1

On February 15th, 2017, US-backed Saudi planes bombed a funeral in Yemen, killing 5 women and wounding dozens more. In the 2015 - Present Yemeni Civil War, 16,200 people have been killed including 10,000 civilians, 3 million have been displaced and left homeless, and over 200,000 people are facing shortages of food, water and medicine. The US has used drone bombers in Yemen, and has supported Saudi interests in the region, with military contracts providing weapons and planes. The US has weapons contracts with Saudi Arabia valuing over $110 billion. In August 2018, Saudi planes bombed a school bus, killing 50, including 40 children, and wounding another 80.1, 2, 3

In 2010, President Obama directed the CIA to assassinate an American citizen in Yemen, Anwar al-Awlaki, despite the fact that he had never been charged with any crime, killing him with a September, 2011 drone strike. Two weeks later, a separate CIA drone strike in Yemen killed his 16-year-old American-born son, Abdulrahman, along with the boy’s 17-year-old cousin and several other innocent Yemenis. In January 2017, Trump ordered a SEAL strike, and reports from Yemen quickly surfaced that 30 people were killed, including 10 women and children. Among the dead: the 8-year-old daughter of Anwar Awlaki, sister of the 16 year old killed by Obama. 1

In 2016, the US under Obama dropped 26,171 bombs in the Middle East and North Africa, up 3000 from the previous year. The countries bombed include Syria, Iraq, Yemen, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Libya, and Somalia. He authorized 10 times more drone strikes than George W Bush. 1

In January 2015, the US killed 13-year-old Mohammed Tuaiman in Yemen with a drone strike. A month earlier, the guardian interviewed him, and he was quoted as saying: "“A lot of the kids in this area wake up from sleeping because of nightmares from them and some now have mental problems. They turned our area into hell and continuous horror, day and night, we even dream of them in our sleep...In their eyes, we don’t deserve to live like people in the rest of the world and we don’t have feelings or emotions or cry or feel pain like all the other humans around the world.” In 2011 an unmanned combat drone killed his father and teenage brother as they were out herding the family’s camels. 1

Since 2013, The US has intervened militarily in the ongoing Syrian Civil War, with airstrikes, naval bombardments, and funding and training Syrian Islamic and secular insurgents fighting to topple the Syrian government. Many have labeled the struggle as a proxy war between US and Russian interests in the Middle East, in a highly unstable region. Between 500-700 civilians have been killed by coalition airstrikes, and over 50,000 ISIL militants and pro-bashad fighters have been killed. 1

From 2011 up to the present day, the US ousted Mummar Gaddafi in Libya, and began conducting an extensive bombing campaign (>110 tomahawk cruise missiles) in the Libyan Civil Wars of 2011 and 2014. This includes 7,700 air strikes, resulting in 30,000 -100,000 deaths. Loyalist towns were bombed to rubble and ethnically cleansed, and the country is in chaos as Western-trained and armed Islamist militias seize territory and oil facilities and vie for power. The Misrata militia, trained and armed by Western special forces, is one of the most violent and powerful in the world.1

In 2010, Chelsea Manning's leak of the Iraq War Logs revealed US army reports on civilian deaths in Iraq and Afghanistan; 66,081 out of 109,000 recorded deaths were civilians. They show that US authorities failed to investigate hundreds of reports of abuse, torture, rape and even murder by Iraqi police and soldiers, and that US troops killed almost 700 civilians for coming too close to checkpoints, including pregnant women and the mentally ill, and countless other atrocities.1

From 2000 up to the present day, the US has been carrying out a campaign of drone strikes and asassinations in the Middle East and Africa, including Yemen, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Somalia, resulting in thousands of civilian deaths, including women, children, and US citizens. 1 Drone strikes are used by the military and the CIA to hunt down and kill people the Obama administration has deemed — through secretive processes, without indictment or trial — worthy of execution. Drone strike targets are usually pinpointed through cell phone usage. The Obama asassination complex is detailed in the drone papers.

On 3 October 2015, a United States Air Force AC-130U gunship attacked and killed 42 people and wounded 30 more in the Kunduz Trauma Centre operated by Doctors Without Borders, in northern Afghanistan. The airstrike constitutes a war crime (attacks on hospitals are considered war crimes), and is the first instance of one Nobel peace prize winner (Obama) bombing and killing another (Doctors without borders). CNN and the New York Times deliberately obscured the US's responsibility for the bombing, with the headline, "US is blamed after bomb hits afghan hospital". 1,2

On 22 August 2008, A US airstrike killed ~90 civilians, mostly children, in the village of Azizabad, Afghanistan. 1

On July 6 2008, the US bombed a wedding party and killed 47 Afghan civilians in the Haska Meyna Wedding party airstrike. The first bomb hit a group of children who were ahead of the main procession, killing them instantly. A few minutes later, the aircraft returned and dropped a second bomb in the center of the group, killing a large number of women. The bride and two girls survived the second bomb, but were killed by a third bomb while trying to escape from the area. Hajj Khan, one of four elderly men who were escorting the party, stated that his grandson was killed and that there were body parts everywhere. 1

On September 16, 2007, employees of Blackwater (since renamed Academi), a private military company, killed 17 Iraqi civilians and injured 20 more in the Nisour Square massacre, revealing a wide-spread policy to employ and enable private security firms to use deadly force. 1

On July 12, 2007, US AH-64 Apache helicopters bombed and killed ~15 Iraqi civilians, including two reuters journalists, and wounding two children, in Al-Amin al-Thaniyah, New Baghdad. The attacks received worldwide coverage following the leaking of 39 minutes of classified gunsight footage, in a video released by wikileaks titled collateral murder. 22-year-old American Army intelligence analyst, Chelsea Manning (then known as Bradley Manning) was arrested for leaking the video, along with a video of another airstrike and around 260,000 diplomatic cables, to WikiLeaks. She was being held in prison under the Espionage act, a law used to jail dissidents, intended to prohibit any interference with military operations, until early 2017. 1

On May 9, 2006, U.S. troops executed 3 male Iraqi detainees at the Muthana Chemical Complex, called the Iron Triangle Murders.1

On April 26, 2006 in the Hamdania incident, US troops killed an unarmed civilian, staging a fake firefight to cover it up. Members of the squad shot the stolen AK-47 rifle into the air to make it sound like a firefight was occurring, and after the Iraqi man was dead, the Marines scattered the expended AK-47 brass next to the body, removed the plastic restraints, and placed the rifle next to the body.1

On March 15, 2006, 11 Iraqi civilians were bound and executed by US troops in the Ishaqi incident. 1

On March 12, 2006, US Soldiers gang raped and killed a 14-year-old Iraqi girl named Abeer Qassim Hamza al-Janabi, and murdered her parents, and her six year old sister, in the Mahmudiyah rape and killings. 1

Beginning in 2005, the U.S. government secretly encouraged and advised a Pakistani Balochi militant group named Jundullah that is responsible for a series of deadly guerrilla raids inside Iran.[85] ABC News learned from tribal sources that money for Jundullah was routed to the group through Iranian exiles. “They are suspected of having links to Al Qaeda and they are also thought to be tied to the drug culture," according to Professor Vali Nasr.[87] U.S. intelligence sources later claimed that the orchestration of Jundallah operations was, in actuality, an Israeli Mossad false flag operation that Israeli agents disguised to make it appear to be the work of American intelligence.[90]

On November 19, 2005, a group of US marines killed 24 unarmed men, women and children in the city of Haditha in Western Iraq. Staff Sgt. Frank Wuterich admitted to telling his men to "shoot first and ask questions later". The eight marines were found not guilty of voluntary manslaughter. 1

In 2004, accounts of physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, including torture (whitewashed as enhanced interrogation techniques), rape, sodomy, and homicide of prisoners held in the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq came to public attention, revealing a systemic policy of torture during the Iraq war, primarily perpetrated by US Military police, and the CIA. Many of the torture techniques used were developed at Guantánamo detention centre, including prolonged isolation; sensory deprivation to induce psychosis, a sleep deprivation program whereby people were moved from cell to cell every few hours so they couldn’t sleep for days, weeks, even months, short-shackling in painful positions; nudity; extreme use of heat and cold; the use of loud music and noise and preying on phobias. Many, such as Manadel al-Jamadi, were tortured to death. 1

On May 20, 2004, A US airstrike killed 42 civilians attending a wedding, in the Mukaradeeb wedding party massacre. 1

On April 14, 2004, Lieutenant Ilario Pantano of the United States Marine Corps, killed two unarmed captives. Lieutenant Pantano claimed that the captives had advanced on him in a threatening manner. All charges were dropped, and he received an honorable discharge. 1

In april, 2004, the US military lied to the family of Pat Tillman, a famous American athlete turned soldier, surrounding his death by friendly fire, and used a fake heroic story about his death as a recruiting poster. The jingoistic media coverage was created by the spin of several top US generals and Bush administration officials, who dictated a memo about how best to handle the embarrassing death of such a high profile soldier. This is chronicled in the documentary, A Tillman Story. 1

Starting with the Iraq war, the US increasingly began contracting private mercenary companies to do military operations. These private companies are authorized by the US to use lethal force. Blackwater, one such company known for its ruthless reputation for killing civilians, has been involved in various scandals, such as in Fallujah, and Nisour square. Its founder, Erik Prince, has close ties to the Trump administration. 1

On December 10, 2002, US military police, aided by the CIA, tortured and killed Dilawar, an Afghan taxi driver, at Baghram prison, highlighting a scandal of torture and murder at the prison. Dilawar was chained to the ceiling of his cell, and suspended by his wrists for four days. His arms became dislocated from their sockets, and flapped around limplywhenever guards collected him for interrogation. During his detention, Dilawar's legs were beaten to a pulp. They would have had to have been amputated because damage was so severe. The murder and US torture complex is chronicled in the 2007 documentary Taxi to the Dark Side. 1

Since 2001, many enemy combatants have been held at the Guantanamo bay detention camp, a prison camp in Cuba in which suspected enemies are jailed indefinitely without trial. Several inmates have been severely tortured, leading much of the world to decry its existence as a human rights abuse. The military acts as interrogators, prosecutors and defense counsel, judges, and when death sentences are imposed, as executioners. All trials are held in private. Trump has vowed to keep the prison open, saying, "[...] I’d bring back a hell of a lot worse than waterboarding... Don’t tell me it doesn’t work—torture works... if it doesn't work, they deserve it anyway, for what they’re doing to us." At least 108 detainees have died while in US custody in Iraq, Afghanistan, and Guantanamo bay, with at least 20 being declared by the Army as murder.1,2

The attacks precipitated the signing into law in 2001 of the Patriot Act, which expanded the powers of the NSA to perform mass surveillance, allowed indefinite detention of immigrants, allowed warrant-less searching of phone and email records without a court order, . Thousands of people were jailed, and questioned under the new power the act granted to law enforcement agencies. Susan Lindauer, a congressional staffer turned activist, imprisoned from 2005-09 for violating the "acting as an agent of a foreign government" provision of the patriot act; the charges were later dropped after it was discovered no evidence ever existed. 1

The September 11th 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York, provoked an international military campaign of Middle East imperialism known as The War on Terror. Conflicts include the Nato led involvement in Afghanistan (2001–2014), the Insurgency in Yemen (1992–2015), the Iraq War (2003–2011), the War in North-West Pakistan (2004–present), and the International campaign against ISIL (2014–present). The enemy combatants of the war have mostly been people of the Middle East. Casualty numbers are in the millions, detailed here. 1

Approximately 250,000[5] of the 697,000 U.S. veterans who served in the 1991 Gulf War are afflicted with an enduring chronic multi-symptom illness called Gulf War Syndrome. From 1995 to 2005, the health of combat veterans worsened in comparison with nondeployed veterans, with the onset of more new chronic diseases, functional impairment, repeated clinic visits and hospitalizations, chronic fatigue syndrome-like illness, posttraumatic stress disorder, and greater persistence of adverse health incidents.[7]. Suggested causes have included depleted uranium, sarin gas, smoke from burning oil wells, vaccinations, combat stress and psychological factors.1

In 1990, The U.S. liberates Kuwait from Iraq in the Gulf War. Iraq’s dictator, Saddam Hussein, was formerly backed by the US when his regime invaded Iran in 1980, and before that was hired by the CIA in a botched assassination attempt on the then Iraqi president. During this costly eight-year war, the CIA built up Hussein’s forces with sophisticated arms, intelligence, training and financial backing, cementing Hussein’s power at home, and allowing him to crush the many internal rebellions that erupted from time to time, sometimes with poison gas. 20,000–35,000 Iraqis were killed in the Gulf War, along with 75,000+ wounded. A vindictive U.N. embargo followed that several years later still denied Iraq the technological resources to recover its food production, medical services, and sanitation facilities. As late as 1993, CNN reported that nearly 300,000 Iraqi children were suffering from malnutrition. Deaths exceeded the normal rate by 125,000 yearly, mostly affecting ‘the poor, their infants, children, chronically ill, and elderly’. Iraqi citizens, who previously had enjoyed a decent living standard, were reduced to destitution.1

In 1988, a US navy cruise missile shot down Iran Flight 655, killing its 290 civilian passengers. In 1996 As part of the settlement, the US did not admit legal liability or formally apologize to Iran but agreed to pay on an ex gratia basis $61.8 million. 1,2

In 1980, the US helped Turkish armed forces in the 1980 Turkish coup d'état, including supplying them with American-made Sikorski helicopters. 1

In 1980, the US funded and sold weapons to both sides in the Iran-Iraq War, hoping to destabilize the region and create a puppet regime favorable to US interests. Over 500,000 people died in the conflict. 1

From 1979-89, the CIA begins supplying arms and money ($630 million per year by 1987) to factions fighting against the soviets in their invasion of afghanistan, In what was known as Operation Cyclone. the U.S. government secretly provided weapons and funding for the Mujahadin Islamic guerillas of Afghanistan fighting to overthrow the Afghan government and the Soviet military forces that supported it. Supplies were channeled through the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) of Pakistan.[44][45][46] Although Operation Cyclone officially ended in 1989 with the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan, U.S. government funding for the Mujahadin continued through 1992. Fanatical extremists now possess state-of-the-art weaponry, including Sheik Abdel Rahman, and Osama Bin Laden, who were later responsible for the 1993 and 2001 World Trade Center bombings in New York.1, 2

Since the 1960s, the US has given immense economic and military aid to Israel in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, which has taken 100,000 - 200,000 lives. The US has used its UN veto power to block a two-state solution countless times. 1

In 1958, Eisenhower authorized Operation Blue Bat, an invasion of 14,000 US troops in the ongoing civil war in Lebanon. This was the first application of the Eisenhower Doctrine under which the U.S. announced that it would intervene to protect regimes it considered threatened by international communism. The goal of the operation was to bolster the pro-Western Lebanese government of President Camille Chamoun against internal opposition and threats from Syria and Egypt. 1

In 1953, the CIA in Iran overthrows the democratically elected Mohammed Mossadegh in a military coup, after he threatened to nationalize British oil. The CIA replaces him with a dictator, the Shah of Iran, whose secret police, SAVAK, is as brutal as the Gestapo. After the initial coup failed and the Shah and his family fled to Italy, the CIA payed millions of dollars to bribe military officers and pay gangsters to unleash violence in the streets of Tehran. 1

In 1949, the US aided a Syrian coup d'état. The democratically elected government of Shukri al-Quwatli was overthrown by a junta led by the Syrian Army chief of staff at the time, Husni al-Za'im,who became President of Syria on 11 April 1949. The exact nature of US involvement in that coup is still highly controversial. However, it is well documented that the construction of the Trans-Arabian Pipeline, which had been held up in the Syrian parliament, was approved by Za'im just over a month after the coup.1

Western hemisphere

In 2017, Hurricane Maria hit Puerto Rico, leaving 3.4 million without electricity and fuel, and causing an estimated $50 Billion in damage. 55% of Puerto Ricans have no potable water, in one of the worst humanitarian crises in decades. In marked contrast to the initial relief efforts for Hurricane Katrina and the 2010 Haiti earthquake, on September 22 the only signs of relief efforts were beleaguered Puerto Rican government employees. The US response has been dismal, leading many to believe that the US prefers a decapitalized Puerto Rico. On September 29, San Juan Mayor Cruz held a press conference to plead for aid and to highlight failures by FEMA, saying, "This is what we got last night. Four pallets of water, three pallets of meals, and 12 pallets of infant food — which, I gave them to the people of Comerío, where people are drinking off a creek. So I am done being polite. I am done being politically correct. I am mad as hell." Cruz continued. "So I am asking the members of the press, to send a mayday call all over the world. We are dying here... And if it doesn't stop, and if we don't get the food and the water into people's hands, what we are going to see is something close to a genocide." In response President Donald Trump wrote on Twitter: "Such poor leadership ability by the Mayor of San Juan and others in Puerto Rico, who are not able to get their workers to help." 1

Following a series of terrorist attacks against Cuba (such as the bombing of Cuban commercial flight 455, that originated from anti-Castro Cuban exile groups in the US, such as Alpha 66, the F4 Commandos, the Cuban American National Foundation, and Brothers to the Rescue), the Cuban government sent spies to infiltrate these insurgent groups operating in Miami. Afterwards, the Cuban government then provided 175 pages of documents to FBI agents investigating Posada Carriles's (a former CIA operative) role in the 1997 terrorist bombings in Havana, but the FBI failed to use the evidence to follow up on Posada. Instead, they used it to uncover and imprison the Cuban spies, known as the Cuban Five. [18][19]. The Cuban Five said they were spying on Miami's Cuban exile community, not the US government. They were imprisoned from 1998, until their eventual release via a prisoner swap in 2014. The terrorist bomber Posada Carriles (who admitted to planning 6 bombings of Havana Hotels and Restaurants) is currently being safeguarded by the US government, and resides in Miami. 1

In 2009, a coup in Honduras has led to severe repression and death squad murders of political opponents, union organizers and journalists. At the time of the coup, U.S. officials denied any role in the coup and used semantics to avoid cutting off U.S. military aid as required under U.S. law. But two Wikileaks cables revealed that the U.S. Embassy, and Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, was the main power broker in managing the aftermath of the coup and forming a government that is now repressing and murdering its people, including popular leader Berta Cáceres. The two men who killed Berta Cáceres were trained in the US. A former soldier with the US-trained special forces units of the Honduran military asserted that Caceres' name was included on a hitlist distributed to them months before her assassination.[66] According to a February 2017 investigation by The Guardian, court papers purport to show that three of the eight people arrested in connection with the assassination are linked to the US-trained elite troops. Two of them, Maj Mariano Díaz and Lt Douglas Giovanny Bustillo, received military training in the US.1,2

In 1990 in Haiti, Competing against 10 comparatively wealthy white candidates, leftist priest Jean-Bertrand Aristide captures 68 percent of the vote. A few months later, the CIA-backed military deposes him in a coup. More military dictators brutalize the country, as thousands of Haitian refugees escape the turmoil in barely seaworthy boats. The CIA "paid key members of the coup regime forces, identified as drug traffickers, for information from the mid-1980s at least until the coup."1 Coup leaders Cédras and François had received military training in the United States. As popular opinion calls for Aristide’s return, the CIA begins a disinformation campaign painting the courageous priest as mentally unstable.1

In 1989, The U.S. invades Panama to overthrow a dictator of its own making, General Manuel Noriega, with the stated goal of "Defending democracy and human rights in Panama". Noriega had been on the CIA’s payroll since 1966, collecting at least $100,000 per year from the U.S. Treasury. As he rose to be the de facto ruler of Panama, he became even more valuable to the CIA, reporting on meetings with Fidel Castro and Daniel Ortega of Nicaragua and supporting U.S. covert wars in Central America, and had been transporting drugs with the CIA’s knowledge since 1972. By the late 80s, Noriega’s growing independence and intransigence had angered Washington. Between 500-4,000 people died in the US invasion. 1

In 1987, the former CIA Station Chief in Angola in 1976, John Stockwell, testified to Congress and told a grisly tale of US involvement on behalf of business interests in Latin America. He cited covert operations in Nicaragua, Panama, Guatemala, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and Cuba. Over the course of his testimony, he estimated that given the bombings of water supplies and other essential infrastructure, the invasions, the coups, that the United States, on its quest for empire, has been responsible for 6,000,000 deaths. The CIA retaliated by suing him into bankruptcy. 1

From 1982-89, The U.S. government attempted to topple the government of Nicaragua by secretly arming, training and funding the Contras, a terrorist group based in Honduras that was created to sabotage Nicaragua and to destabilize the Nicaraguan government.As part of the training, the CIA distributed a detailed "terror manual" entitled "Psychological Operations in Guerrilla War," which instructed the Contras, among other things, on how to blow up public buildings, to assassinate judges, to create martyrs, and to blackmail ordinary citizens. In 1986, the Nicaraguan government under the Sandinistas shoots down a C-123 transport plane carrying military supplies to the Contras. The lone survivor, Eugene Hasenfus, turns out to be a CIA employee, as are the two dead pilots, contradicting Reagan's claims that the US was not aiding the contras. 1

In the 1980s the CIA supported Battalion 316, a torture/assassination squad in Honduras, which kidnapped, tortured and killed hundreds of its citizens. Battalion 316 used shock and suffocation devices in interrogations , and prisoners often were kept naked and, when no longer useful, killed and buried in unmarked graves. Declassified documents and other sources show that the CIA and the U.S. Embassy knew of numerous crimes, including murder and torture, yet continued to support Battalion 316 and collaborate with its leaders. These constitute war crimes.1

In 1980, In El Salvador, The Archbishop of San Salvador, Oscar Romero, pleads with President Carter to stop aiding the military government slaughtering his people. Carter refuses. Right-wing leader Roberto D’Aubuisson has Romero shot through the heart while saying Mass. The country soon dissolves into civil war, with the peasants in the hills fighting against the military government. The CIA and U.S. Armed Forces supply the government with overwhelming military and intelligence superiority, training death squads to roam the countryside, committing atrocities like that of El Mozote in 1982, where 800 civilians were massacred. By 1992, some 63,000 Salvadorans were killed. Back then Salvador was controlled by a mafia of 13 families who owned 50% of the land and wealth. The 13 families were heavily linked with the United States. CIA provided weapons and military training to the Salvadorean Army. As soon as the CIA discovered the priests were indoctrinating the masses, they began killing them.

In 1979, The CIA began to destabilize Grenada after Maurice Bishop became president, for his marxist, pro-cuba, anti-racism, and anti-apartheid stances. The previous leader, Eric Gairy, was a British/US puppet who furthered imperialist interests in the region, sacked the treasury, presided over 47% unenemployment, and a 200% cost of living increase. His right wing gang / secret police, the Mongoose gang, ruthlessly tortured Leftists, sending his police to Pinochet's Argentina to learn torture techniques, and even murdered Maurice's father. Under Bishop's leadership, Women were given equal pay and paid maternity leave, and sex discrimination was made illegal. Organisations for education (Center for Popular Education), health care, and youth affairs (National Youth Organization) were also established, as well as free education and health care. A literacy campaign lowered it to < 5% in 3 years. The campaign against him resulted in his overthrow and the invasion by the U.S. of Grenada on October 25, 1983, with about 277 people dying.

In 1979, the US-backed dictator Anastasios Samoza II falls, beginning the popular Nicaraguan Revolution. Remnants of his Guard will become the Contras, who fight a CIA-backed guerilla war against the left-wing Sandinista government throughout the 1980s, with Reagan authorizing covert support to anti-Sandinista forces. 1

In 1976, several CIA-linked anti-Castro Cuban exiles and members of the Venezuelan secret police DISIP were responsible for a terrorist bomb attack on Cuban flight 455, killing 73 people. CIA venezuelan operative Luis Posada Carriles, one of the bombers, fled and was granted amnesty in the US in 2007. 1

In 1976, The CIA backed an overthrow of Argentinan leader Isabel Martínez de Perón by right wing anti-communist dictator Jorge Rafael Videla. In 1983, two years after the return of a representative democratic government, he was prosecuted in the Trial of the Juntas for large-scale human rights abuses and crimes against humanity that took place under his rule, including kidnappings or forced disappearance, widespread torture and extrajudicial murder of activists, and political opponents as well as their families at secret concentration camps, and harboring nazis. An estimated 13,000 -30,000 political dissidents vanished during this period. Videla was also convicted of the theft of many babies born during the captivity of their mothers at the illegal detention centres and passing them on for illegal adoption by associates of the regime. In his defence, Videla maintains the female guerrilla detainees allowed themselves to fall pregnant in the belief they wouldn't be tortured or executed. 1

On 11 September 1973, The CIA backed a military coup to remove democratically elected socialist president Salvador Allende, in favor of right-wing dictator Augusto Pinochet. His US-supported regime was characterized by the systematic suppression of political parties and the persecution of dissidents to an extent that was unprecedented in the history of Chile, backed by the neoliberal free-market economic policies of the Chicago Boys. Over-all, the regime left over 3,000 dead or "dissappeared", tortured thousands of prisoners, and forced 200,000 Chileans into exile. He's known for the Villa Grimaldi, a torture complex, and his Caravan of Death, a Chilean Army death squad guilty of countless atrocities, including dropping pregnant women and teenagers out of helicopters in the ocean, and executions where prisoners were shot by parts, over extended periods of time. Pinochet's forces are conservatively estimated to have killed over 11,000 people in his first year in power. 1, 2

In 1971 in Bolivia, after half a decade of CIA-inspired political turmoil, a CIA-backed military coup overthrows the leftist President Juan Jose Torres, eventually being kidnapped and murdered by CIA backed right wing death squads, as part of Operation Condor. In the next two years, dictator Hugo Banzer will have over 2,000 political opponents arrested without trial, then tortured, raped and executed.

In 1971, A CIA operative told a reporter he delivered a strain of the African Swine Fever virus from an army base in the Canal Zone to anti-Castro Cubans. An outbreak of the disease then occurred in Cuba, resulting in the slaughter of 500,000 pigs to prevent a nationwide animal epidemic. It was labeled the "most alarming event" of 1971 by the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization.1

Starting in the 1970s, a CIA-backed coalition of right wing governments in Argentina, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia and Brazil, began Operation Condor, a campaign of political repression and state terror involving intelligence operations and assassination of opponents, with the stated aim of "eliminating Marxist subversion." Victims included dissidents and leftists, union and peasant leaders, priests and nuns, students and teachers, intellectuals and suspected guerillas. An estimated 30,000 to 80,000 leftists or sympathizers were killed. 1

In 1969, amid a collapsing economy, labor and student strikes in Uruguay, CIA operative Dan Mitrione initiates a campaign of torture and violence against the left-wing student group Tuparamos. Former Uruguayan police officials and CIA operatives stated Mitrione had taught torture techniques to Uruguayan police, including the use of electrical shocks delivered to his victims' mouths and genitals. It has been alleged that he used homeless people for training purposes, who were executed once they had served their purpose.1

In 1968, a CIA-organized military operation in Bolivia led by cuban exile and CIA agent Félix Rodríguez captures legendary guerilla Che Guevara, defeating the Ñancahuazú Guerrilla. The Bolivian president ordered his immediate execution to prevent worldwide calls for clemency, and the drama of a trial. Nazi war criminal Klaus Barbie aka "The Butcher of Lyon", advised and possibly helped the CIA orchestrate Guevara's eventual capture.1

In 1965, The US intervened in the Dominican Civil War, providing air support and 1,700 marines. This later transformed into an Organization of American States occupation of the country. 1

In 1964, A CIA-backed military coup in Brazil overthrows the democratically elected government of Joao Goulart. The junta that replaces it will, in the next two decades, become one of the most bloodthirsty in history. General Castelo Branco creates Latin America’s first death squads, or bands of secret police who hunt down communists and political opponents for torture, interrogation and murder. Later it is revealed that the CIA trained the death squads. Thousands were tortured, and hundreds were killed.

In the 1962 Cuban missile crisis, the Joint Chiefs of Staff unanimously agreed that a full-scale nuclear attack and invasion was the only solution, nearly plunging the world into nuclear war. 1

From 1961 onward, The US School of Americas, a US Department of Defense institute in Fort Benning, Georgia, was assigned the specific goal of teaching "anti-communist counterinsurgency training," to CIA-supported right wing paramilitaries. It trained more than 19,000 students from 36 countries in the western hemisphere, including several Latin American dictators, and, during the 1980s, included torture in its curriculum. 1

In 1961, in Ecuador, the CIA-backed military forces the democratically elected President José María Velasco Ibarra to resign. Vice President Carlos Arosemana replaces him; the CIA fills the now vacant vice presidency with its own man. 1

In 1961, the CIA assassinated Rafael Trujillo, a murderous dictator responsible for the deaths of more than 50,000 people, who Washington had supported since 1930. Trujillo’s business interests had grown so large (about 60 percent of the economy) that they had begun competing with American business interests. The US later provided troops on the side of the loyalists in the 1965 Dominican civil war, to ensure US interests. 1

After the Failed bay of pigs invasion, the CIA began Operation Mongoose, a series of covert operations to disrupt and destabilize Cuba. The operation included economic warfare, including an embargo against Cuba, “to induce failure of the Communist regime to supply Cuba's economic needs,” a diplomatic initiative to isolate Cuba, and psychological operations “to turn the peoples' resentment increasingly against the regime.”[32] The economic warfare prong of the operation also included the infiltration by the CIA of operatives to carry out many acts of sabotage against civilian targets, such as a railway bridge, a molasses storage facilities, an electric power plant, and the sugar harvest, notwithstanding Cuba’s repeated requests to the United States government to cease its terrorist operations.[33][32] In addition, the CIA orchestrated a number of assassination attempts against Fidel Castro, head of government of Cuba, including attempts that entailed CIA collaboration with the American mafia. 1

In 1961, the CIA sent 1,500 Cuban exiles to invade Castro’s Cuba in the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion. B26 bombers attacked cuban airfields, providing initial air support. The planners had imagined that the invasion would spark a popular uprising against Castro -– which never happened. Several hundred were killed in the action. Castro's government returned the captured invaders for medical supplies. 1

In 1959, following the US occupation of Haiti, The U.S. military helps "Papa Doc" Duvalier become dictator of Haiti. He creates his own private police force, the Tonton Macoutes, who terrorize the population with machetes. They kill over 100,000 during the Duvalier family reign. The U.S. does not protest their dismal human rights record.

In 1958, The United States supported the Batista dictatorship in Cuba. Batista aligned with the wealthiest landowners who owned the largest sugar plantations, and presided over a stagnating economy that widened the gap between rich and poor Cubans. Eventually most of the sugar industry was in U.S. hands, and foreigners owned 70% of the arable land. As such, Batista's increasingly corrupt and repressive government then began to systematically profit from the exploitation of Cuba's commercial interests, by negotiating lucrative relationships with both the American Mafia, who controlled the drug, gambling, and prostitution businesses in Havana, and with large U.S.-based multinational companies who were awarded lucrative contracts. To quell the growing discontent amongst the populace—which was subsequently displayed through frequent student riots and demonstrations—Batista established tighter censorship of the media, while also utilizing his Bureau for the Repression of Communist Activities secret police to carry out wide-scale violence, torture and public executions; ultimately killing anywhere from hundreds to 20,000 people. After the Cuban revolution, the CIA launched a long campaign of terrorism against Cuba, training Cuban exiles in Florida, Central America and the Dominican Republic to commit assassinations and sabotage in Cuba. These include the cuban embargo, and over 638 failed assasination attempts on fidel castro. 1

In 1954, the CIA overthrows the democratically elected Guatemalen Jacobo Árbenz in a military coup in operation PBSucess. Arbenz threatened to nationalize the Rockefeller-owned United Fruit Company, in which CIA Director Allen Dulles also owns stock. Arbenz is replaced with a series of US-backed right-wing dictators whose bloodthirsty policies will kill over 100,000 Guatemalans in the next 40 years, until 1996. The coup has been described as the definitive deathblow to democracy in Guatemala.1

In 1941, the US used its contacts in the Panama National Guard, which the U.S. had earlier trained, to have the government of Panama overthrown in a bloodless coup. The U.S. had requested that the government of Panama allow it to build over 130 new military installations inside and outside of the Panama Canal Zone, and the government of Panama refused this request at the price suggested by the U.S.

In Smedley Butler's (A former US general and medal of honor recipient) 1935 pamphlet, War is a Racket, he recounted his experience as being an agent of American Imperialism: “I spent 33 years and four months in active military service and during that period I spent most of my time as a high class muscle man for Big Business, for Wall Street and the bankers. In short, I was a racketeer, a gangster for capitalism. I helped make Mexico and especially Tampico safe for American oil interests in 1914. I helped make Haiti and Cuba a decent place for the National City Bank boys to collect revenues in. I helped in the raping of half a dozen Central American republics for the benefit of Wall Street. I helped purify Nicaragua for the International Banking House of Brown Brothers in 1902-1912. I brought light to the Dominican Republic for the American sugar interests in 1916. I helped make Honduras right for the American fruit companies in 1903. In China in 1927 I helped see to it that Standard Oil went on its way unmolested Looking back on it, I might have given Al Capone a few hints. The best he could do was to operate his racket in three districts. I operated on three continents.”1

In 1928, the Columbian army killed ~80 striking workers in Cienaga, Columbia, after the US threatened to invade with U.S. Marine Corps troops if the Colombian government did not act to protect the United Fruit Company's interests, in the Banana Massacre. The banana plantation workers were demanding written contracts, eight-hour work days, six-day work weeks and the elimination of food coupons. The troops set up their machine guns on the roofs of the low buildings at the corners of the main square, closed off the access streets, and after a five-minute warning opened fire into a dense Sunday crowd of workers and their wives and children who had gathered, after Sunday Mass, to wait for an anticipated address from the governor. 1

From 1916-24, the US occupied the Dominican Republic, with repeated actions in 1903, 1904, and 1914. 1

From 1915–34, Haiti was occupied by the US, which led to the creation of a new Haitian constitution in 1917 that instituted changes that included an end to the prior ban on land ownership by non-Haitians. Including the First and Second Caco Wars.[13] At least 15,000 Haitians were killed. 1

In 1914, the US military invaded Veracruz, Mexico, after US sailors were arrested by the Mexican government for entering off-limits areas, in the Tampico Affair. Over 200 were killed in the invasion.

In 1912, the US military invaded Nicaragua after intermittent landings and naval bombardments in the previous decades. It was occupied by the U.S. almost continuously from 1912 through 1933. With the onset of the Great Depression and Augusto C. Sandino's Nicaraguan guerrilla troops fighting back against U.S. troops, it became too costly for the U.S. government and a withdrawal was ordered in 1933.

In 1903 the US backed its puppet state Panama's secession from Columbia. The Panama Canal was under construction by then, and the Panama Canal Zone, under United States sovereignty, was then created. The zone was transferred to Panama in 2000.1

From 1895-1917, the Banana Wars refers to the military intervention on behalf of US business interests in Central America and the Caribbean (8 countries in total) after the Spanish American War. In Honduras, for example, the United Fruit Company and Standard Fruit Company dominated the country's key banana export sector and associated land holdings and railways, and saw insertion of American troops in 1903, 1907, 1911, 1912, 1919, 1924 and 1925. 1

In 1896, the US fought the Spanish-American War largely over economic interests in the Caribbean, primarily Cuba. Historian Eric Foner writes: "Even before the Spanish flag was down in Cuba, U.S. business interests set out to make their influence felt. Merchants, real estate agents, stock speculators, reckless adventurers, and promoters of all kinds of get-rich schemes flocked to Cuba by the thousands. Seven syndicates battled each other for control of the franchises for the Havana Street Railway, which were finally won by Percival Farquhar, representing the Wall Street interests of New York. Thus, simultaneously with the military occupation began . . . commercial occupation." 1

In 1846, the US sent a small force into Mexico with the aim of bringing about a war, and started the Mexican-American War. The US prevailed, expanding its territory far into Mexico, and killed ~25,000 mexicans in the process, as part of an ideological goal of white supremacy in north america called manifest destiny. The shift in the Mexico-U.S. border left many Mexican citizens separated from their national government. For the indigenous peoples who had never accepted Mexican rule, the change in border meant conflicts with a new outside power.1

Africa

In early 2017, the US began conducting drone strikes in Somalia against Al Shabab militants. An attack on July 16th killed 8 people. 1

In 1998, the US bombed the Al Shifa pharmaceutical factory in Sudan, killing one employee and wounding 11. It was the largest pharmaceutical factory in Khartoum, producing medicine both for human and veterinary use. The US had acted on false evidence of a VX nerve agent from a single soil sample, and later used a false witness to cover for the attack. It was the only pharmaceutical factory in Africa not under US control. 1

In June 1982, with the help of CIA money and arms, Hissene Habre , dubbed Africa's Pinochet, takes power in Chad. His secret police, use methods of torture including the burning the body of the detainee with incandescent objects, spraying gas into their eyes, ears and nose, forced swallowing of water, and forcing the mouths of detainees around the exhaust pipes of running cars. Habré's government also periodically engaged in ethnic cleansing against groups such as the Sara, Hadjerai and the Zaghawa, killing and arresting group members en masse when it was perceived that their leaders posed a threat to the regime. In May 2016 he was found guilty of human-rights abuses, including rape, sexual slavery and ordering the killing of 40,000 people, and sentenced to life in prison. 1

In the 1980s, Reagan maintains a close relationship with the Apartheid South african government, called constructive engagement, while secretly funding it in the hopes of creating a bulwark of anti-communism and preventing a marxist party from taking power, as happened in angola. Later on, in the wars against Apartheid in South Africa and Angola, in which cuban and anti-apartheid forces fought the white south african government, the US supplied south africa with nuclear weapons via Israel. 1

In 1975, Henry Kissinger launches a CIA-backed war in Angola, backing the brutal anti-communist leader of UNITAS, Jonas Savimbi, against the Marxist-Leninst MPLA party, creating a civil war lasting for 30 years. Congress continues to fund UNITAS, and their south-african apartheid allies until the late 1980s. By the end of the war, more than 500,000 people had died and over one million had been internally displaced. 1

In 1966, a CIA-backed military coup overthrows he widely popular Pan-Africanist and Marxist leader Kwame Nkrumah in Ghana, inviting the International Monetary Fund and World Bank to take a lead role in managing the economy. With this reversal, accentuated by the expulsion of immigrants and a new willingness to negotiate with apartheid South Africa, Ghana lost a good deal of its stature in the eyes of African nationalists.1

In 1965, a CIA-backed military coup installs Mobutu Sese Seko, described as the "archetypal African dictator" in Congo. The hated and repressive Mobutu exploits his desperately poor country for billions.1

In 1961, the CIA assists in the assassination of the democratically elected congolese leader Patrice Lumumba, throwing the country into years of turmoil. 1

Asia

Between 1996-2006, The US has given money and weapons to royalist forces against the nepalese communists in the Nepalese civil war. ~18,000 people have died in the conflict. 1

In 1996, after receiving incredibly low approval ratings, the US helped elect Boris Yeltsin, an incompetent pro-capitalist independent, by giving him a $10 Billion dollar loan to finance a winning election. Rather than creating new enterprises, Yeltsin's democratization led to international monopolies hijacking the former Soviet markets, arbitraging the huge difference between old domestic prices for Russian commodities and the prices prevailing on the world market. Much of the Yeltsin era was marked by widespread corruption, and as a result of persistent low oil and commodity prices during the 1990s, Russia suffered inflation, economic collapse and enormous political and social problems that affected Russia and the other former states of the USSR. Under Yeltsin, Between 1990 and 1994, life expectancy for Russian men and women fell from 64 and 74 years respectively to 58 and 71 years. The surge in mortality was “beyond the peacetime experience of industrialised countries”. While it was boom time for the new oligarchs, poverty and unemployment surged; prices were hiked dramatically; communities were devastated by deindustrialisation; and social protections were stripped away.1,2

In 1975 Australian Constitutional Crisis, the CIA helped topple the democratically elected, left-leaning government of Prime Minister Gough Whitlam, by telling Governor-General, John Kerr, a longtime CIA collaborator, to dissolve the Whitlam government.

Between 1963 and 1973, The US dropped ~388,000 tons of napalm bombs in vietnam, compared to 32,357 tons used over three years in the Korean War, and 16,500 tons dropped on Japan in 1945. US also sprayed over 5 million acres with herbicide, in Operation Ranch Hand, in a 10 year campaign to deprive the vietnamese of food and vegetation cover. 1,2

In 1971 in Pakistan, an authoritarian state supported by the U.S., brutally invaded East Pakistan in the Indo-Pakistani war of 1971. The war ended after India, whose economy was staggering after admitting about 10 million refugees, invaded East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) and defeated the West Pakistani forces. The US gave W. pakistan 411 million provided to establish its armed forces which spent 80% of its budget on its military. 15 million in arms flowed into W. Pakistan during the war. Between 300,000 to 3 million civilians were killed, with 8-10 million refugees fleeing to India. 1

In 1970, In Cambodia, The CIA overthrows Prince Sihanouk, who is highly popular among Cambodians for keeping them out of the Vietnam War. He is replaced by CIA puppet Lon Nol, whose forces suppressed the large-scale popular demonstrations in favour of Sihanouk, resulting in several hundred deaths.1 This unpopular move strengthens once minor opposition parties like the Khmer Rouge (another CIA supported group), who achieve power in 1975 and massacres ~2.5 million people. 1

In 1969, The US initiated a secret carpet bombing campaign in eastern Cambodia, called, Operation Menu, and Operation Freedom Deal in 1970. An estimated 40,000 - 150,000 civilians were killed. Nixon lied about this campaign, but was later exposed, and one of the things that lead to his impeachment. 1

US dropped large amounts of Agent Orange, an herbicide developed by monsanto and dow chemical for the department of defense, in vietnam. Its use, in particular the contaminant dioxin, causes multiple health problems, including cleft palate, mental disabilities, hernias, still births, poisoned breast milk, and extra fingers and toes, as well as destroying local species of plants and animals. The Red Cross of Vietnam estimates that up to 1 million people are disabled or have health problems due to Agent Orange.1

US Troops killed between 347 and 504 unarmed civilians, including women, children, and infants, in South Vietnam on March, 1968, in the My Lai Massacre. Some of the women were gang-raped and their bodies mutilated. Soldiers set fire to huts, waiting for civilians to come out so they could shoot them. For 30 years, the three US servicemen who tried to halt the massacre and rescue the hiding civilians were shunned and denounced as traitors, even by congressmen. 1

In 1967, the CIA helped South Vietnamese agents identify and then murder alleged Viet Cong leaders operating in villages, in the Phoenix Program. By 1972, Phoenix operatives had executed between 26,000 and 41,000 suspected NLF operatives, informants and supporters.1

In 1965, The CIA overthrew the democratically elected Indonesian leader Sukarno with a military coup. The CIA had been trying to eliminate Sukarno since 1957, using everything from attempted assassination to sexual intrigue, for nothing more than his declaring neutrality in the Cold War. His successor, General Suharto, aided by the CIA, massacred between 500,000 to 1 million civilians accused of being communist, in the Indonesian mass killings of 1965-66. The US continued to support Suharto throughout the 70s, supplying weapons and planes.

From the 1960s onward, the US supported Filipino dictator Ferdinand Marcos. The US provided hundreds of millions of dollars in aid, which was crucial in buttressing Marcos's rule over the years. The estimated number of persons that were executed and disappeared under President Fernando Marcos was over 100,000. After fleeing to hawaii, marco was suceeded by the widow of an opponent he assasinated, Corazon aquino. 1

Starting in 1957, in the wake of the US-backed First Indochina War, The CIA carries out approximately one coup per year trying to nullify Laos’ democratic elections, specifically targeting the Pathet Lao, a leftist group with enough popular support to be a member of any coalition government, and perpetuating the 20 year Laotian civil war. In the late 50s, the CIA even creates an "Armee Clandestine" of Asian mercenaries to attack the Pathet Lao. After the CIA’s army suffers numerous defeats, the U.S. drops more bombs on Laos than all the U.S. bombs dropped in World War II. A quarter of all Laotians will eventually become refugees, many living in caves. 1

In 1955, the CIA provided explosives, and aided KMT agents in an assassination attempt against the Chinese Premier, Zhou Enlai. KMT agents placed a time-bomb on the Air India aircraft, Kashmir Princess, which Zhou was supposed to take on his way to the Bandung Conference, an anti-imperialist meeting of Asian and African states, but he changed his travel plans at the last minute. Henry Kissinger denied US involvement, even though remains of a US detonator were found. 16 people were killed. 1

From 1955-1975, the US supported French colonialist interests in Vietnam, set up a puppet regime in Saigon to serve US interests, and later took part as a belligerent against North Vietnam in the Vietnam War. U.S. involvement escalated further following the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident, which was later found to be staged by Lyndon Johnson. The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities (see Vietnam War casualties). Estimates of the number of Vietnamese soldiers and civilians killed vary from 966,000[29] to 3.8 million.[50] Some 240,000–300,000 Cambodians,[51][52][53] 20,000–62,000 Laotians,[50] and 58,220 U.S. service members also died in the conflict, with a further 1,626 missing in action. 1

In the beginning of the Korean war, US Troops killed ~300 South Korean civilians in the No Gun Ri massacre, revealing a theater-wide policy of firing on approaching refugee groups. Trapped refugees began piling up bodies as barricades and tried to dig into the ground to hide. Some managed to escape the first night, while U.S. troops turned searchlights on the tunnels and continued firing, said Chung Koo-ho, whose mother died shielding him and his sister. No apology has yet been issued. 1

In the summer of 1950 in South Korea, anticommunists aided by the US executed at least 100,000 people suspected of supporting communism, in the Bodo League Massacre. For four decades the South Korean government concealed this massacre. Survivors were forbidden by the government from revealing it, under suspicion of being communist sympathizers. Public revelation carried with it the threat of torture and death. During the 1990s and onwards, several corpses were excavated from mass graves, resulting in public awareness of the massacre. 1

The US intervened in the 1950-53 Korean Civil War, on the side of the south Koreans, in a proxy war between the US and china for supremacy in East Asia. South Korea reported some 373,599 civilian and 137,899 military deaths, the US with 34,000 killed, and China with 114,000 killed.[16] Overall, the U.S. dropped 635,000 tons of bombs—including 32,557 tons of napalm—on Korea, more than they did during the whole Pacific campaign of World War II.[305][306] The US killed an estimated 1/3rd of the north Korean people during the war. The Joint Chiefs of staff issued orders for the retaliatory bombing of the People's republic of China, should south Korea be attacked. Deadly clashes have continued up to the present day. 1

From 1948-1949, the Jeju uprising was an insurgency taking place in the Korean province of Jeju island, followed by severe anticommunist suppression of the South Korean Labor Party in which 14-30,000 people were killed, or ~10% of the island's population. Though atrocities were committed by both sides, the methods used by the South Korean government to suppress the rebels were especially cruel. On one occasion, American soldiers discovered the bodies of 97 people including children, killed by government forces. On another, American soldiers caught government police forces carrying out an execution of 76 villagers, including women and children. The US later entered the Korean civil war on the side of the South Koreans. 1

In 1949 during the resumed Chinese Civil War, the US supported the corrupt Kuomintang dictatorship of Chiang Kaishek to fight against the Chinese Communists, who had won the support of the vast majority of peasant-farmers and helped defeat the Japanese invasion. The US strongly supported the Kuomintang forces. Over 50,000 US Marines were sent to guard strategic sites, and 100,000 US troops were sent to Shandong. The US equipped and trained over 500,000 KMT troops, and transported KMT forces to occupy newly liberated zones as well as to contain Communist-controlled areas.[51] American aid included substantial amounts of both new and surplus military supplies; additionally, loans worth hundreds of millions of dollars were made to the KMT.[59] Within less than two years after the Sino-Japanese War, the KMT had received $4.43 billion from the US—most of which was military aid.[51]1

The U.S. installed Syngman Rhee,a conservative Korean exile, as President of South Korea in 1948. Rhee became a dictator on an anti-communist crusade, arresting and torturing suspected communists, brutally putting down rebellions, killing 100,000 people and vowing to take over North Korea. Rhee precipitated the outbreak of the Korean War and for the allied decision to invade North Korea once South Korea had been recaptured. He was finally forced to resign by mass student protests in 1960.1

Between 1946 and 1958, the US tested 23 nuclear devices at Bikini Atoll. Significant fallout caused widespread radiological contamination in the area. Afterwards both locations proved unsuitable to sustaining life, resulting in starvation and requiring the residents to receive ongoing aid. Virtually all of the inhabitants showed acute symptoms of radiation syndrome. A handful were brought to the US for medical research and later returned, while others were evacuated to neighboring Rongerik Atoll and kili Island. When the majority returned 3 years later, radion levels were still unacceptable. Similar incidents occurred elsewhere in the Marshall Islands during this time period. Due to the destruction of natural wealth, Kwajalein Atoll's military installation and dislocation, the majority of natives currently live in extreme poverty, making less than 1$ a day. Those that have jobs, mostly work at the US military installation and resorts.1,2

After the Japanese surrender in 1945, Douglas MacArthur pardoned Unit 731, a Japanese biological experimentation center which performed human testing of biological agents against Chinese citizens. While a series of war tribunals and trials was organized, many of the high-ranking officials and doctors who devised and respectively performed the experiments were pardoned and never brought to justice. As many as 12,000 people, most of them Chinese, died in Unit 731 alone and many more died in other facilities, such as Unit 100 and in field experiments throughout Manchuria. One of the experimenters who killed many, microbiologist Shiro Ishii, later traveled to the US to advise on its bioweapons programs. In the final days of the Pacific War and in the face of imminent defeat, Japanese troops blew up the headquarters of Unit 731 in order to destroy evidence of the research done there. As part of the cover-up, Ishii ordered 150 remaining subjects killed.1,2

US Troops committed a number of rapes during the battle of Okinawa, and the subsequent occupation of Japan. There were 1,336 reported rapes during the first 10 days of the occupation of Kanagawa prefecture alone.1 American Occupation authorities imposed wide-ranging censorship on the Japanese media, including bans on covering many sensitive social issues and serious crimes such as rape committed by members of the Occupation forces.2

From 1942 to 1945, the US military carried out a fire-bombing campaign of Japanese cities, killing between 200,000 and 900,000 civilians. One nighttime fire-bombing of Tokyo took 80,000 lives. During early August 1945, the US dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, killing ~130,000 civilians, and causing radiation damage which included birth defects and a variety of genetic diseases for decades to come. The justification for the civilian bombings has largely been debunked, as the entrance of Russia into the war had already started the surrender negotiations earlier in 1945. The US was aware of this, since it had broken the Japanese code and had been intercepting messages during for most of the year. The US ended up accepting a conditional surrender from Hirohito, against which was one of the stated aims of the civilian bombings. The dropping of the atomic bomb is therefore seen as a demonstration of US military supremacy, and the first major operation of the Cold War with Russia. 1,2

In 1918, the US took part in the allied intervention in the Russian civil war, sending 11,000 troops to the in the Arkhangelsk and Vladivostok regions to support the anti-bolshevik, monarchist, and largely anti-semitic White Forces. 1

In 1900 in China, the US was part of an Eight-Nation Alliance that brought 20,000 armed troops to China, to defeat the Imperial Chinese Army, in the the Boxer Rebellion, an anti-imperialist uprising. 1

In 1899, after a popular revolution in the Philippines to oust the Spanish imperialists, the US invaded and began the Phillipine-American war. The US military committed countless atrocities, leaving 200,000 Filipinos dead. Jacob H Smith killed between 2,500 to 50,000 civilians, His orders included, "kill everyone over the age of ten" and make the island "a howling wilderness."1,2

In 1883, the US engineered the overthrow of Hawaii's native monarch, Queen Lili'uokalani . Due to the Queen's desire "to avoid any collision of armed forces, and perhaps the loss of life" for her subjects and after some deliberation, at the urging of advisers and friends, the Queen ordered her forces to surrender. Hawaii was initially reconstituted as an independent republic, but the ultimate goal of the revolutionaries was the annexation of the islands to the United States, which was finally accomplished in 1898.1

Europe

From March to June of 1999, After Serbs refused to acquiesce in the break-up of their republic, the US and NATO began bombing Yugoslavia killing ~500 civilians, leaving thousands homeless, destroying bridges, industrial plants, public buildings, private businesses, as well as barracks and military installations. 1, 2

In 1995, the US conducted a campaign of airstrikes called Operation Deliberate Force, as part of an intervention in the Bosnian civil war. 1

Throughout the 1980-90s, the US, with the aid of the IMF and NATO, actively destabilized and aided in the breakup of Yugoslavia, with the goal of weakening and destroying the last surviving socialist bloc in Europe. These include stirring up ethnic tensions between the member countries, economic warfare, and military intervention. The Reagan administration in a 1982 secret memo, advocated "expanded efforts to promote a 'quiet revolution' to overthrow Communist governments and parties," while reintegrating the countries of Eastern Europe into a market-oriented economy. In November 1990, the Bush administration pressured Congress into passing the 1991 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act, which provided that any part of Yugoslavia failing to declare independence within six months would lose U.S. financial support, demanded separate elections in each of the six Yugoslav republics, and mandated U.S. State Department approval of both election procedures and results as a condition for any future aid. In 1991, Yugoslav Army chief Veljko Kadijević stated: "An insidious plan has been drawn up to destroy Yugoslavia. Stage one is civil war. Stage two is foreign intervention. Then puppet regimes will be set up throughout Yugoslavia." 1, 2, 3

In 1967 in Greece, the CIA installed Georgios Papadopoulos, a CIA agent and former nazi collaborator, as the military ruler of Greece. He's seen today as an relic of authoritarianism , xenophobia, and anti-communism. 1

In 1956, Radio Free Europe (a CIA funded propaganda outlet) broadcasts Khruschev’s Secret Speech, which played a role in the Hungarian revolution, and also hinted that American aid will help the Hungarians fight. The US fails to provide any military aid to Hungary in their ensuing conflict with the Soviet Union. 1

From 1948 onwards, the CIA under Allen Dulles developed a program of media manipulation called Project Mockingbird, having major influence over the media, including >25 newspapers. The usual method was placing reports developed from intelligence provided by the CIA to cooperating or unwitting reporters, or employing media directly as American assets.1

In 1948, the CIA corrupts the elections in Italy, where Italian communists threaten to win the elections. The CIA buys votes, broadcasts propaganda, threatens and beats up opposition leaders, and infiltrates and disrupts their organizations. The communists are defeated.1,2

In 1947, in Greek civil war and ensuing right wing military junta of 1967-74, Truman and the CIA provided money, 74,000 tons of military equipment, and advisors to support anti-communist Greek dictators with deplorable human rights records. Support for right-wing dictatorships in Greece and Turkey were funded and sold under the Truman Doctrine, an anti-soviet foreign policy platform, despite the fact that it was Yugoslavia who provided support to the Greek labor movement rebels, and not the Soviet Union.1

During the invasion of Sicily in July 1943, eight unarmed Italian civilians, including an eleven year old girl, were killed by U.S. troops. 1

US soldiers killed 73 unarmed Italian and German prisoners of war in Santo Pietro, Italy on July 1943. The survivors were then shot at close range, directly through the heart. 1

The Rheinwiesenlager (Rhine meadow camps) were a group of 19 US prison camps built in the Allied-occupied part of Germany to hold captured German soldiers at the close of the Second World War, holding between one and almost two million surrendered Wehrmacht personnel. Prisoners held in the camps were designated Disarmed Enemy Forces and not POWs, to avoid international treaty regulations. Throughout the summer of 1945, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) was prevented from visiting prisoners in any of the Allies' Rheinwiesenlager. Visits were only started in the autumn of 1945, at a time when most camps had closed or were closing. During their visits, the delegates observed that German prisoners of war were often detained in appalling conditions. They drew the attention of the authorities to this fact, and gradually succeeded in getting some improvements made."[7] Between 3,000 to 10,000 died from starvation, dehydration and exposure to the weather elements because no structures were built inside the prison compounds. 1

A study by Robert J. Lilly estimates that a total of 14,000 civilian women in England, France and Germany were raped by American GIs during World War II.1. It is estimated that there were around 3,500 rapes by American servicemen in France between June 1944 and the end of the war and one historian has claimed that sexual violence against women in liberated France was common.2

In July, 1945, the predecessor to the CIA, the US Office of Strategic Services (OSS), under the name Operation Paperclip, rescued and recruited 1,500 Nazi scientists, engineers, and spies. These included Reinhard Gehlen, Hitler’s master spy who had built up an intelligence network in the Soviet Union, SS intelligence officers Alfred Six and Emil Augsburg (who massacred Jews in the Holocaust), Klaus Barbie (the "Butcher of Lyon", who was used by the US to further anti-communist efforts in europe), Otto von Bolschwing (the Holocaust mastermind who worked with Eichmann) and SS Colonel Otto Skorzeny (a personal friend of Hitler’s). The policy of collaboration with nazi spies was deemed necessary to counter the threat from the USSR. 1

In February 1945, 527 airplanes of the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) dropped more than 3,900 tons of high-explosive bombs and incendiary devices on the city of Dresden, Germany, killing ~25,000 civilians.1

In the summer of 1942, the US turned away a series of ships of Jewish refugees fleeing Nazi Germany. Most notoriously, in June 1939, the German ocean liner St. Louis and its 937 passengers, almost all Jewish, were turned away from the port of Miami, forcing the ship to return to Europe; more than a quarter died in the Holocaust. 1

The US maintained a policy of neutrality during the rise of Hitler and Mussolini, discounting the rise of anti-semitism and European fascism. It was not Hitler's attacks on the Jews that brought the United States into World War II, any more than the enslavement of 4 million blacks brought Civil War in 1861. Italy's attack on Ethiopia, Hitler's invasion of Austria, his takeover of Czechoslovakia, his attack on Poland-none of those events caused the United States to enter the war, although Roosevelt did begin to give important aid to England. What brought the United States fully into the war was the Japanese attack on the American naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on December 7, 1941.1

In the 1936-39 Spanish civil war, the Roosevelt administration sponsored a neutrality act that had the effect of shutting off help to the Spanish government while Hitler and Mussolini gave critical aid to Franco, aiding yet another fascist victory in Europe. American President Richard Nixon later toasted Franco's "firmness and fairness",[41] and, after Franco's death, he stated: "General Franco was a loyal friend and ally of the United States.[42]".

Internal Repression

Native Americans

In 2016, the US army corp of engineers approved a Energy Transfer Partners' proposal to build an oil pipeline near the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, sparking the Dakota Access Pipeline Protests, evoking a brutal response from North Dakota police aided by the National Guard, private security firms, and other law enforcement agencies from surrounding states. The Standing Rock Sioux tribe believes that the pipeline would put the Missouri River, the water source for the reservation, at risk, pointing out two recent spills, a 2010 pipeline spill into the Kalamazoo River in Michigan, which cost over billion to clean up with significant contamination remaining, and a 2015 Bakken crude oil spill into the Yellowstone River in Montana. Police repression has included dogs attacking protesters, spraying water cannons on protesters in sub-freezing temperatures, >700 arrests of Native Americans and ~200 injuries, a highly militarized police force using armored personnel carriers, concussion grenades, mace, Tasers, batons, rubber bullets, and tear gas. In November 2017, the keystone XL pipeline burst, spilling 210,000 gallons of oil in Amherst, South Dakota. 1, 2

In 1975, FBI agents attacked AIM activists on the Pine Ridge Reservation, in the 'Pine Ridge Shootout'.[37] Two FBI agents, and an AIM activist were killed. In two separate trials, the U.S. prosecuted participants in the firefight for the deaths of the agents. AIM members Robert Robideau and Dino Butler were acquitted after asserting that they had acted in self–defense. Leonard Peltier was extradited from Canada and tried separately because of the delay. He was convicted on two counts of first–degree murder for the deaths of the FBI agents[38] and sentenced to two consecutive terms of life in prison, after a trial which is still contentious. He remains in prison.

In 1973, 200 Oglala Lakota and AIM activists occupied the town of Wounded Knee, South Dakota, on the Pine Ridge Reservation, called the Wounded knee incident. They were protesting the reservation's corrupt US-backed tribal chairman, Dick Wilson, who controlled a private militia, called Guardians of the Oglala Nation (GOONs), funded by the government. FBI, US marshals, and other law enforcement cordoned off the area and attacked the activists with armored vehicles, automatic rifles, machine guns, grenade launchers, and gas shells, resulting in two killed and 13 wounded. Ray Robinson, a civil rights activist who joined the protesters, disappeared during the events and is believed to have been murdered. As food supplies became short, three planes dropped 1,200 pounds of food, but as people scrambled to gather it up, a government helicopter appeared overhead and fired down on them while groundfire came from all sides. After the siege ended in a truce, 120 occupiers were arrested. Wilson stayed in office and in 1974 was re-elected amid charges of intimidation, voter fraud, and other abuses. The rate of violence climbed on the reservation as conflict opened between political factions in the following three years; residents accused Wilson's private militia of much of it. 1

In Nov. 1969, a group of 89 Native Americans occupied Alcatraz Island for 15 months, to gauge the US's commitment to the Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868), which stated that all abandoned federal land must be returned to native people. Eventually the government cut off all electrical power and all telephone service to the island. In June, a fire of disputed origin destroyed numerous buildings on the island.[7] Left without power, fresh water, and in the face of diminishing public support and sympathy, the number of occupiers began to dwindle. On June 11, 1971, a large force of government officers removed the remaining 15 people from the island.1

From its creation in 1968, The American Indian Movement (AIM) has been a target of repression from law enforcement agencies, and surveillance as one of the FBI's COINTELPRO targets. This includes the wounded knee incident and the pine ridge shootout. 1

In 1942 the federal government took privately held Pine Ridge Indian Reservation land owned by tribal members in order to establish the Badlands Bombing Range of 341,725 acres, evicting 125 families. Among the families evicted was that of Pat Cuny, an Oglala Sioux. He fought in World War II in the Battle of the Bulge after surviving torpedoing of his transport in the English Channel.[24] Dewey Beard, a Miniconjou Sioux survivor of the Wounded Knee Massacre, who supported himself by raising horses on his 908-acre allotment received in 1907 was also evicted. The small federal payments were insufficient to enable such persons to buy new properties. In 1955 the 97-year-old Beard testified of earlier mistreatment at Congressional hearings about this project.[25] He said, for "fifty years I have been kicked around. Today there is a hard winter coming. ...I might starve to death." 1

In 1890, US soldiers killed 150-300 people (including 65 women and 24 children) at Wounded Knee (19-26 people, including two women and eleven children.) on the Lakota Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in the U.S. state of South Dakota. Twenty-five soldiers also died, and 39 were wounded (6 of the wounded later died).[7] At least twenty soldiers were awarded the Medal of Honor. The event was driven by local racism towards the practice of Ghost Dancing, which whites found distasteful, and the Native Americans arming up in response to repeated broken treaties, stolen land, and their bison-herds being hunted to near extinction by the whites.1

In 1887, the Dawes Act, and Curtis Act, resulted in the loss of 90 million acres of native-alloted land, and the abolition of many native governments. During the ensuing decades, the Five Civilized Tribes lost 90 million acres of former communal lands, which were sold to non-Natives. In addition, many individuals, unfamiliar with land ownership, became the target of speculators and criminals, were stuck with allotments that were too small for profitable farming, and lost their household lands. Tribe members also suffered from the breakdown of the social structure of the tribes. 1

Starting in the 1870s, The US army, aided by settlers and private hunters, began a widespread policy of slaughtering bufallo and bison, in order to destroy many tribe's primary food source, and to starve Native Americans into submission. By 1900, they succeeded; the bufallo population dropped from more than 30 million, to a few hundred. The country’s highest generals, politicians, and presidents including Ulysses S. Grant, saw the destruction of buffalo as solution to the country’s “Indian Problem.” By destroying the food supply of the plains natives, they could more easily move them onto reservations.1

Starting in 1830-50, The Trail of Tears was a series of forced removals of Native American nations, including Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Seminole, Cherokee people and the African freedmen and slaves who lived among them, from their ancestral homelands in the Southeastern United States to an area west of the Mississippi River that had been designated as Native Territory. The forced relocations were carried out by various government authorities following the passage of the Indian Removal Act in 1830. "Marshaled by guards, hustled by agents, harried by contractors,they were being herded on the way to an unknown and unwelcome destination like a flock of sick sheep." They went on ox wagons, on horses, on foot, then to be ferried across the MississippiRiver. The army was supposed to organize their trek, but it turned over its job to private contractors who charged the government as much as possible, gave the Indians as little as possible. The Cherokee removal in 1838 (the last forced removal east of the Mississippi) was brought on by the discovery of gold near Dahlonega, Georgia in 1828, resulting in the Georgia Gold Rush.[6] Approximately 2,000-6,000 of the 16,543 relocated Cherokee perished along the way.[7][8][9][10][11]1

In 1848, the California Genocide is a term used to describe the drastic decrease in Native American population in California. The population decreased from ~300,000 in 1769, to 16,000 in 1900. 1

The Second Seminole War, also known as the Florida War, was a conflict from 1835 to 1842 in Florida between various groups of Native Americans collectively known as Seminoles and the United States, part of a series of conflicts called the Seminole Wars. The Second Seminole War, often referred to as the Seminole War, is regarded as "the longest and most costly of the Indian conflicts of the United States." ~3000 seminoles were killed, and 4000 were deported to Indian territory elsewhere. 1

In 1832, the Black Hawk War, was a brief 1832 conflict between the United States and Native Americans led by Black Hawk, a Sauk leader, in Illinois. The war gave impetus to the US policy of Indian removal, in which Native American tribes were pressured to sell their lands and move west of the Mississippi River and stay there. Over 500 Native Americans were killed in the conflict.1

In 1832, the Chickasaw Indians were forced by the US to sell their country in 1832 and move to Indian Territory (Oklahoma) during the era of Indian Removal in the 1830s.

In 1813, the Creek War, was a war between the US, lead by the then notorious indian-hunter Andrew Jackson, and the Creek nation, residing primarily in Alabama. Over 1,500 creeks were killed. The war effectively ended with the Treaty of Fort Jackson, where General Andrew Jackson insisted that the Creek confederacy cede more than 21 million acres of land from southern Georgia and central Alabama. These lands were taken from allied Creek as well as Red Sticks. In 1814, Andrew Jackson became famous for his role in the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, where his side killed more than 800 Creeks. Under Jackson, and the man he chose to succeed him, Martin Van Buren, 70,000 Indians east of the Mississippi were forced westward.

The Red Sticks, a faction of Muscogee Creek people in the American Southeast, led a resistance movement against European-American encroachment and assimilation; tensions culminated in the outbreak of the Creek War in 1813.

From 1785-96, the Northwest Indian War was a war between the US and a confederation of numerous Native American tribes, with support from the British, for control of the Northwest Territory. President George Washington directed the United States Army to enforce U.S. sovereignty over the territory. Over 1,000 Native Americans were killed in the bloody conflict.

In the 1800s, Indian removal was a policy of the United States government whereby Native Americans were forcibly removed from their ancestral homelands in the eastern United States to lands west of the Mississippi River, thereafter known as Indian Territory. That policy has been characterized by some scholars as part of a long-term genocide of Native Americans. 1

The Texan-Indian Wars were a series of 19th-century conflicts between settlers in Texas and the Southern Plains Indians. Its hard to approximate the number of deaths from the conflicts, but the Indian population in Texas decreased from 20,000 to 8,000 by 1875. 1

The Indian Wars is a name given to the collection of over 40 conflicts and wars between Native Americans and US settlers. The US census bureau reports that they have cost the lives of about 19,000 white men, women and children, including those killed in individual combats, and the lives of about 30,000 Indians. The actual number of killed and wounded Indians must be very much higher than the number given... Fifty percent additional would be a safe estimate..1

From 1500-1900s, European and later US colonists and authorities displaced and committed genocide on the Native American Population. Ward Churchill characterizes the reduction of the North American Indian population from an estimated 12 million in 1500 to barely 237,000 in 1900 as a "vast genocide.. the most sustained on record. Some of the atrocities will be listed above. 1, 2

Black people

On September 27th, 2018, a Dallas TX police officer getting off work entered the apartment of 26 year old Botham Jean (thinking it was her own), and shot and killed him. The officer, Amber Guyger, at first was placed on administrative leave, and eventually was charged with manslaughter. Jeans family accused the Dallas Police Department of using Jean's marijuana use in news articles as a justification for his murder. 1,2,3

On June 20th 2018, a Pittsburgh PA cop shot 17-year old Antwon Rose in the back while he was running away and killed him. Luckily a cell phone video caught the incident, showing officers handcuffing his corpse. "He was just a really lovely, gentle kid," Gisele Fetterman told the newspaper at a World Refugee Day event in Market Square on Wednesday. "His mom is amazing. All the kids loved him. Just a fine person. Bubbly. Funny. Goofy. Just really special."1

On July 19th, 2017, Cincinatti OH prosecutors decided not to pursue a third murder trial for police officer Ray Tensing, who shot Samuel DuBose in the head on July 19th 2015, killing him, after pulling him over for a missing front license plate. The prosecutor told the mother, "since there are more racists in Hamilton county than not, its pointless to pursue another trial because you won't get a conviction." Tensing was wearing a confederate battle flag T-shirt when he murdered DuBose. 1

On June 18th, 2017, Seattle police murdered a 30 year old pregnant woman suffering from mental health issues, Charleena Lyles, while her 3 of her 4 children slept in the next room. No charges have been brought against the police officers. 1

On Feb 12, 2017, Jerimy Mathis, a white North Carolina state trooper shot 31-year-old Willard Scott twice in the back, killing him, as he was running away from the trooper after a traffic stop. Mathis was placed on paid leave, and no charges have been filed.1

On July 18th, 2016, Police shot Alfred Kinsey, a mental health therapist who was unarmed, while he was helping an autistic patient in a park. Kinsey was lying on the ground with his hands in the air and trying to negotiate between officers and his patient when he was shot. Both Kinsey and his patient were unarmed. Following the shooting, Kinsey stated he was handcuffed and left bleeding on the ground for 20 minutes with police giving him no medical aid. Authorities stated that they were investigating the incident, which received significant media attention following the appearance of cellphone video footage. The officer who shot Kinsey was arrested in 2017 and charged with attempted manslaughter and negligence. However, he remains employed and has not been fired. 1,2

On July 6th, 2016, Philando Castile was shot and killed by Jeronimo Yanez, a St. Anthony, Minnesota police officer. Castile's girlfriend live-streamed the murder, showing Yanez pointing the gun at both her and her daughter. After Yanez was acquitted of all charges on June 16, 2017 by a jury, a video of the murder was leaked, showing Philando openly disclosing that he had a firearm on him, only to then be shot point-blank 5 times. According to author and former FBI agent Larry Brubaker, who has written two books on officer-involved shootings, "this is the first time an officer has been charged for a fatal shooting in Minnesota in more than 200 cases that spanned over three decades". 1

On November 5th, 2015, Two police officers shot and killed 24-year old Jamar Clark. The cops were placed on paid leave. Protests over the shooting lead to another act of terrorism where 4 white men shot 5 Black lives matter protestors. 1

In May, 2010, Kalief Browder, a 16 year old black teen, was arrested while walking home in the Bronx, on suspicion of robbery. He was held for 3 years on Riker Island, a New York jail notorious for its horrible treatment of inmates, without trial or conviction, refusing to accept the state's plea deal and staunchly defending his innocence, until the case was finally dismissed. Kalief was held for 2 of his 3 years in solitary confinement, and his deteriorating mental health lead him to attempt suicide multiple times. After his release, Kalief Browder committed suicide by hanging himself, in June, 2015. 1, 2

On May 16, 2010, Police officer Joseph Weekley killed Aiyana Stanley-Jones with a headshot, a 7 year old black girl, as she slept on a sofa inside her home on the east side of Detroit. On January 28, 2015, a prosecutor cleared Weekley of the last remaining charge against him, ensuring there would not be a third trial.1, 2

On April 12, 2015, Freddie Carlos Gray, Jr., a 25-year-old Black man, was arrested by the Baltimore Police Department for possessing what the police alleged was an illegal switchblade under Baltimore law. While being transported in a police van, several cops held him down, putting pressure on his spinal cord, after which he fell into a coma and died on April 19, 2015. This sparked a series of protests in Baltimore; riot police responded violently, and called in the national guard to aid against the "thugs", as they were labeled by Obama in a press conference. After the protests were put down, the police officers were given separate trials, and all of them were found innocent. 1

On March 30, 2015, After being pulled over for rolling through a stop sign, Floyd Dent was beaten by officer William Melendez, who had a history of civil complaints for brutality. Melendez punched him 15 times in the temple, put him in a chokehold, until another officer arrived and tased him. Melendez repeatedly threatened to kill Dent, and plant drugs on him. 1

The shooting of Walter Scott occurred on April 4, 2015, in North Charleston, South Carolina, following a daytime traffic stop for a non-functioning brake light. Scott, an unarmed black man, was murdered by Michael Slager, a white North Charleston police officer. Slager was only charged with murder after an eyewitness video surfaced which showed him shooting Scott from behind while Scott was fleeing, and which contradicted his police report. Without the video, the shooting would've likely been deemed justified, as nearly all murders by police result in no charges. 1

On November 22, 2014, in Cleveland, Ohio, two police officers killed 12 year old Tamir Rice, after receiving a call that he had a weapon. It turned out to be a toy. 1

On November 14, 2014,Albuquerque New Mexico police officer Keith Sandy killed a mentally ill homeless man, Boyd. Sandy told another officer: “For this fucking lunatic? I’m going to shoot him in the penis with a shotgun here in a second.”, then killed Boyd 2 hours later. Sandy chose voluntary retirement (in order to avoid an internal investigation) and a pension, getting 70% of his pay for the rest of his life. 1

The shooting of Michael Brown occurred on August 9, 2014, in Ferguson, Missouri, a northern suburb of St. Louis. Brown, an unarmed 18-year-old black man was fatally shot by Darren Wilson, 28, a white Ferguson police officer, after robbing a convenience store. Protests in Ferguson erupted after the murderer was found innocent, evoking a militarized crackdown on black protestors by the predominantly white police force. After his mother and some supporters put have been few industries which have been immune.[1]. A long flowers and candles on the spot where he was killed, police ran over the spot with their vehicles.This systemic pattern of murder of unarmed black civilians spawned the Black Lives Matter (BLM) movement. 1

The shooting of John Crawford III occurred on August 5, 2014. Crawford was a 22-year-old African-American man shot to death by Beavercreek police officer Sean Williams, in a Walmart store in Beavercreek, Ohio, near Dayton, while holding a toy BB gun.1

On August 5th, 2014, Tulsa Oklahoma police officer Shannon Kepler shot and killed his daughter's 19 year old black boyfriend, Jeremy Lake, after Lake tried to shake his hand. After the killing, he fled the scene, and neither called for medical help, nor stayed to talk with police. As of July 2017, there have been 3 deadlocked trials. 1

On July 17, 2014, Eric Garner died in Staten Island, New York City, after a New York City Police Department (NYPD) officer put him in what has been described as a chokehold for about 15 to 19 seconds while arresting him. A grand jury found the officer Pantaleo innocent, sparking a series of nation-wide demonstrations against police brutality of blacks.1

On April 30, 2014, a police officer, Christopher Manney, shot and killed Dontre Hamilton, a black man with a history or mental illness, at Red Arrow Park in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. After the shooting, Manney applied for duty disability, saying the shooting and its aftermath caused him to experience severe post-traumatic stress disorder, after being fired. No charges were brought against him.1

On March 3rd, 2014, Police claimed 22 year old Victor White shot himself while handcuffed (behind his back) in the back of a Louisiana state police car. A later autopsy revealed that he was shot in the front by a right-handed person (he was left-handed). Yet, the Iberia Parish coroner continued to declare the death a suicide. 1

In September 2005, in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, Police shot and killed 2 black civilians and wounded 4 others in the Danziger Bridge Shootings. New Orleans police fabricated a cover-up story for their crime, falsely reporting that seven police officers responded to a police dispatch reporting an officer down, and that at least four suspects were firing weapons at the officers upon their arrival.[2] Although 5 police officers were initially convicted by a federal jury in New Orleans, this decision was overturned. In 2016, the five officers plead guilty and received reduced sentences from 3-12 years. 1

In 2004, during a protest at the republican national convention, over 1,800 people were arrested. They were held at Hudson Pier Depot at Pier 57 on the Hudson River, a three-story, block-long pier that has been converted into a temporary prison, described as overcrowded, dirty, and contaminated with oil and asbestos. People reported having suffered from smell, bad ventilation, and even chemical burns and rashes. In 2014, the city was forced to pay $6.4 million to 430 individual plaintiffs. $6.6 million was paid to settle a class-action lawsuit filed by 1,200 additional people. 1,2

In 1991 in Los Angeles, Latasha Harlins was a 15-year-old black teen who was shot in the head by Soon Ja Du, a 51-year-old female store owner from South Korea, who was tried and convicted of voluntary manslaughter in Harlins' death. Harlins' death came 13 days after the videotaped beating of Rodney King. Du was fined $500 and sentenced to five years of probation and 400 hours of community service but no prison time for her crime. Some cited the shooting as one of the causes of the 1992 Los Angeles riots.1

In 1991, Los Angeles police beat up Rodney King, a black taxi-driver, and his two passengers, after he refused to pull over. The brutal beating, in which he was gagged, tazed, kicked, and beaten with batons by around 6 cops, with ~15 more idly watching, was caught on video, and the media frenzy and black community reaction surrounding his beating lead to the 1992 Los Angeles riots. 1

On May 13, 1985, the police again attempted to evict MOVE, and bombed an entire city block, killing 11 people (including 5 children, Delisha, Thee, Netta, Frank, Raymond, Vincent, Conrad, Rhonda, Lil Phil, Thomaso, & Theresa Africa), and leaving 250 homeless. Police initially lobbed tear gas canisters at the building, and a gunfight with semi-automatic and automatic firearms ensued. Commissioner Sambor then ordered a bombing from a Pennsylvania State Police helicopter, and Philadelphia Police Department Lt. Frank Powell proceeded to drop two one-pound bombs made of C4 explosive (which the police referred to as "entry devices") made of FBI-supplied water gel explosive, a dynamite substitute, targeting a fortified, bunker-like cubicle on the roof of the house. The resulting explosions ignited a fire from fuel for a gasoline-powered generator in rooftop bunker that eventually destroyed approximately 65 nearby houses. The firefighters, who had earlier deluge-hosed the MOVE members in a failed attempt to evict them from the building, stood by as the fire caused by the bomb engulfed the first house and spread to others, having been given orders to let the fire burn. Despite the earlier drenching of the building by firefighters, officials said that they feared that MOVE would shoot at the firefighters. Eleven people (John Africa, five other adults and five children aged 7 to 13) died in the resulting fire and more than 25have been few industries which have been immune.[1]. A long 0 people were left homeless. Ramona Africa, one of the two survivors, stated that police fired at those trying to escape. No one from the city government was charged criminally. Many MOVE members are still in prison, fighting for their release. 1

In 1979, a communist-led march to oust the Ku Klux Klan and the American Nazi Party lead to the Greensboro Massacre, where local police helped the KKK stop the march and kill 5 protesters. Edward Dawson, a Klansman-turned FBI informant as part of the agency's COINTELPRO program and was among the founders of the North Carolina Knights of the Ku Klux Klan when the North Carolina chapter of the United Klans of America split. By 1979 he was working as an informant for the Greensboro Police Department. He was given a copy of the march route from the police and informed them of the potential for violence. Absent the police, the attackers escaped with relative ease. All of the killers were acquitted in state and national trials. The city lost a civil lawsuit in 1980, being one of the few times in US history when "a jury held local police liable for cooperating with the KKK in a wrongful death." The Greensboro city council finally apologized for the incident in 2017. 1

In 1979, Los Angeles police shot and killed Eulia Love over a disputed gas bill. LA police had a notorious reputation for using violence in black, brown, and gay communities. The police chief in a press conference later corrected the amount of the bill, after a reporter quoted an incorrect amount for the bill. 1>

In 1978, the police were involved in shootout with MOVE, a black power commune in Philadelphia, after attempting to evict them. The 9 surviving members (called the MOVE 9, including Charles Sims Africa) were given 100 year long sentences, 7 of which are still currently in prison.

Between 1932 and 1972, the US public health service secretly infected ~200 black men with syphilis, under the guise of receiving free health care, in the Tuskegee syphilis experiment. None of the men infected were ever told they had the disease (told instead they had "bad blood"), and none were treated with penicillin even after the antibiotic became proven for the treatment of syphilis in 1947. By the end of the study in 1972, only 74 of the test subjects were alive. Of the original 399 men, 28 had died of syphilis, 100 were dead of related complications, 40 of their wives had been infected, and 19 of their children were born with congenital syphilis. 1

In 1969, the FBI in collaboration with chicago police, murdered an influential black panther organizer, Fred Hampton, when he was 21 years old. An FBI informant drugged him in the evening, then agents broke into the apartment, killing another, and firing into the room where Hampton and his pregnant girlfriend slept. The FBI targeted him as being a potential "Black Messiah", as Hampton was organizing poor blacks, whites, Latinos, and Native Americans in Chicago with the Rainbow Coalition, to fight the repressive police brutality under mayor Daley. After a break-in at an FBI office in Pennsylvania, the existence of COINTELPRO, an illegal counter-intelligence program, was brought to light. One of the documents that was released after the break-in was a floor plan of Hampton's apartment. Another document outlined a deal the FBI brokered with the deputy attorney general to conceal the FBI's role in the assassination of Hampton and the existence of COINTELPRO. 1

Starting in 1967, The Black Panther Party, a revolutionary black socialist group, became the target of FBI's COINTELPRO. Hoover deemed the Panther's free breakfast program (which served food for 10,000 children daily at its height), and its free medical care programs, as a dangerous threat to the US. Local police forces, aided by the FBI, were involved with multiple break-ins of panther headquarters, shoot-outs, the arrests, imprisonment, or murder of nearly every high-ranking member, and achieved its systematic destruction by 1980. A faithful account of its history is in founder Huey P. Newton's autobiography Revolutionary Suicide, and the history Black against Empire. 1

In 1967, a nationwide series of riots broke out in the black ghettos of the US, involving young blacks revolting against the white-supremacist power structure. In the 1967 Detroit Riot, Lyndon Johnson brought in the Michigan National guard to put down the revolt. The result was 43 dead, 1,189 injured, over 7,200 arrests, and more than 2,000 buildings destroyed. 1

From December 1963 until his death in 1968, Martin Luther King Jr. was the target of an intensive campaign by the FBI to 'neutralize' him as an effective civil rights leader. This included wiretapping his phones, blackmail letters threatening to expose his extramarital affairs, a letter encouraging him to commit suicide, as well as watching King during his assassination, leading many to believe the FBI were either complicit, or accomplices. The FBI are similarly accused of being complicit or accomplices to the nation of Islam's murder of Malcolm X. 1

In such cities as Birmingham, Alabama, police ruthlessly enforced segregation, and white supremacist terrorism. In 1963, the police assisted the KKK in bombing the black leaders of the Birmingham Campaign for desegregation, leading to the Birmingham Riot of 1963, as well as the 16th st. Baptist Church Bombing, where 4 black girls were killed. The US government sent in troops to quell the revolting black populace. In the 1963 Children's Crusade, police mass arrested black children who had walked out of school protesting segregation, using fire hoses and attack dogs against them. Over 1,000 people were arrested throughout the campaign.

In 1927, the US had Marcus Garvey, a black organizer, deported under false pretenses of mail fraud. Garvey was unique in advancing a Pan-African philosophy to inspire a global mass movement and economic empowerment focusing on Africa known as Garveyism.[3] Promoted by the UNIA as a movement of African Redemption, Garveyism would eventually inspire others, ranging from the Nation of Islam to the Rastafari movement (some sects of which proclaim Garvey as a prophet.)[4]1

In 1921, a white mob started the Tulsa race riot, attacking black residents in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in what is considered one of the worst incidents of racial violence in US History. Thousands of whites rampaged through the black community for two days, killing men and women, burning and looting stores and homes, and using private planes to drop burning balls of turpentine on rooftops. ~300 blacks were killed, and ~10,000 blacks were left homeless. More than 800 people were admitted to hospitals and more than 6,000 black residents were arrested and detained. In 2001 it was revealed that the police and national guard assisted the whites. 1

In the years between 1889 and 1903, on the average, every week, two Negroes were lynched by mobs -- hanged, burned, mutilated.

In 1887, white paramilitaries attacked and killed between 35-300 black Knights of Labor sugar workers on strike for better conditions, in the Thibodaux Massacre. Victims reportedly included elders, women and children. All those killed were African American.[3]1

In the 1860s-70s, the Ku Klux Klan, aided by police, organized raids,lynchings, beatings, burnings, throughout the south. For Kentucky alone, between 1867 and 1871, the National Archives lists 116 acts of violence. A sample:

Sam Davis hung by a mob in Harrodsburg, May 28, 1868.

Wm. Pierce hung by a mob in Christian July 12, 1868.

Geo. Roger hung by a mob in Bradsfordville Martin County July 11, 1868. ...

Silas Woodford age sixty badly beaten by disguised mob. . ..

Negro killed by Ku Klux Klan in Hay county January 14, 1871.

After the Civil war, black voting in the period after 1869 resulted in 2 black senators and 20 black congressmen. This list would dwindle rapidly after 1876, due to the reactionary policies of Johnson-era reconstruction, and the empowering of the KKK in the south. By 1901, there were no blacks in congress, and the number still hasn't returned to its 1869 levels.

The Memphis Riots of 1866 occurred after a shooting altercation between white policemen and black soldiers recently mustered out of the Union Army. Mobs of white civilians and policemen rampaged through black neighborhoods and the houses of freedmen, attacking and killing black men, women and children. 46 blacks and 2 whites were killed, 75 blacks injured, over 100 black persons robbed, 5 black women raped, and 91 homes, 4 churches and 8 schools burned in the black community.[2]Modern estimates place property losses at over $100,000, suffered mostly by blacks. Police and firefighters made up one third of the mob (24% and 10%, respectively, of the total group); they were joined by small business owners (28%), clerks (10%), artisans (10%), and city officials (4.5%). Many blacks fled the city permanently; by 1870, their population had fallen by one quarter compared to 1865.1

In 1865-66, the Black Codes were laws passed by Southern states after the Civil War. These laws had the intent and the effect of restricting African Americans' freedom, and of compelling them to work in a labor economy based on low wages or debt. Black Codes were part of a larger pattern of Southern whites trying to suppress the new freedom of emancipated African American slaves, the freedmen.

In 1865, the 13th Amendment, abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime. This would become an important loophole, as white supremacists, land-owners, and business-owners in the south would enact legislation and find ways to imprison blacks for petty crimes, and thus be able to use free prison labor for their businesses. This continues up to the present day, in such policies as the disparity of sentencing between prescription "white" drugs, and drugs typically used in poorer black communities.

In 1859, white abolitionist John Brown attempted to begin an armed slave revolt, rallying nearby black and white abolitionists, and raided an arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia. He intended to use the rifles and pikes he captured at the arsenal, in addition to those he brought along, to arm rebellious slaves with the aim of striking terror in the slaveholders in Virginia. He planned to send agents to nearby plantations, rallying the slaves. They would free more slaves, obtain food, horses and hostages, and destroy slaveholders' morale. Brown planned to follow the Appalachian Mountains south into Tennessee and even Alabama, the heart of the South, making forays into the plains on either side.[9] Due primarily to intelligence leaks, the raid failed; 10 were killed and 6, including Brown, were captured (lead by future confederate general Robert E. Lee), then executed by hanging. Before his execution, John Brown addressed the court: ''I John Brown am now quite certain that the crimes of this guilty, land: will never be purged away; but with Blood. I had as I now think: vainly flattered myself that without very much bloodshed; it might be done. [...] Had I so interfered in behalf of the rich, the powerful, the intelligent, the so-called great, or in behalf of any of their friends, either father, mother, brother, sister, wife, or children, or any of that class, and suffered and sacrificed what I have in this interference, it would have been all right; and every man in this court would have deemed it an act worthy of reward rather than punishment." 1

The Fugitive Slave act of 1850 was a law that required all escaped slaves, upon capture, to be returned to their masters and that officials and citizens of free states had to cooperate in this law.Abolitionists nicknamed it the "Bloodhound Law" for the dogs that were used to track down runaway slaves.[1] 1

In 1831, Nat Turner lead a Slave Rebellion in Southampton County, Virginia. Rebel slaves killed from 55 to 65 white slave-owners, the highest number of any slave uprising in the Southern United States. There was widespread fear in the aftermath of the rebellion, and white militias organized in retaliation against the slaves. The state executed 56 slaves accused of being part of the rebellion. In the frenzy, many non-participant slaves were punished. At least 100 African Americans, and possibly up to 200, were murdered by militias and mobs in the area. Blacks suspected of participating in the rebellion were beheaded by the militia. "Their severed heads were mounted on poles at crossroads as a grisly form of intimidation." Across the South, state legislatures passed new laws prohibiting education of slaves and free black people,[3] restricting rights of assembly and other civil rights for free black people, and requiring white ministers to be present at all worship services.1

In 1822, Denmark Vesey a former slave who had purchased his freedom, began organizing his parish for a slave rebellion in Charleston, South Carolina. Vesey and his followers were said to be planning to kill slaveholders in Charleston, liberate the slaves, and sail to the black republic of Haiti for refuge, but were arrested beforehand. Vesey and five slaves were among the first group of men rapidly judged guilty by the secret proceedings of a city-appointed Court and condemned to death; they were executed by hanging on July 2, 1822. In later proceedings, some 30 additional followers were executed. 1

The 1811 German Coast Uprising was a revolt of black slaves in parts of the Territory of Orleans. Between 64 and 125 enslaved men marched from sugar plantations near present-day LaPlace on the German Coast toward the city of New Orleans. During their two-day, twenty-mile march, the men burned five plantation houses (three completely), several sugarhouses, and crops. White men led by officials of the territory formed militia companies to hunt down and kill the insurgents. Over the next two weeks, white planters and officials interrogated, tried and executed an additional 44 insurgents who had been captured. Executions were by hanging or decapitation. Whites displayed the bodies as a warning to intimidate slaves. The heads of some were put on pikes and displayed at plantations. The alleged leader, Charles Deslondes, had his hands chopped off, was then shot in one thigh & then the other, until they were both broken – then shot in the Body and before he had expired was put into a bundle of straw and roasted. 1

In the summer of 1800, Gabriel Prosser planned a large slave rebellion in Richmond, Virginia. Information regarding the revolt was leaked prior to its execution, and he and twenty-five followers were taken captive and hanged in punishment. In reaction, Virginia and other state legislatures passed restrictions on free blacks, as well as prohibiting the education, assembly, and hiring out of slaves, to restrict their chances to learn and to plan similar rebellions. 1

In 1787, the Three-Fifths Compromise, was a compromise between southern and northern states for how slaves should be counted for representation and taxation purposes, and determining how many seats a state would have in the house of representatives. Black slaves were counted as 3/5ths of a white person. 1

In the 18th and 19th centuries, US plantation owners benefitted from African Slavery, which eventually became the dominant mode of production in the south. Words cannot do justice to the inhumanity of slavery as practiced by the US, but specific examples above will attempt to highlight its brutality. The total slave population in the South eventually reached 4 million before liberation. 1

Latinos

On January 29th, 2019, Tempe Arizona police shot and killed a 14 year old, Antonio Arce. He was shot in the back between his shoulder blades while running away. Police at first delayed, then released a small section of the bodycam footage, intentionally cut right before seeing the body, 3 days after the shooting. After backlash over the shortened video, they held a private showing to select reporters, barring any cameras or recording devices, seemingly showing Arce with the orange-tipped airsoft gun found near his body. They've refused to release that video to the public, leading many to believe it to be doctored, with police planting an airsoft gun on him after the killing as a justification. The original video has no such airsoft gun. The officer who murdered him is currently on administrative leave.

On Nov 25, 2018, US customs and border agents fired tear gas at hundreds of Central American migrants on the US border. “We ran, but when you run, the gas asphyxiates you more,” Honduran migrant Ana Zuniga, 23, told the Associated Press while cradling daughter Valery, 3, in her arms. The use of tear gas is banned in warfare, while its use for riot control is internationally accepted. Protesters and amnesty seekers would have more rights and protections if they simply declared war on the US government.

Starting in April 2018, the Trump administration began a policy of separating families who attempt to cross the border. Separated children have been housed in a number of newly constructed tent facilities, such as one in Tornillo, TX. Andrea Pitzer, the author of “One Long Night: A Global History of Concentration Camps" writes, “While writing a book on camp history, I defined concentration camps as the mass detention of civilians without trial, usually on the basis of race, religion, national origin, citizenship, or political party, rather than anything a given individual has done. By this definition, the new child camp established in Tornillo, Texas, is a concentration camp.” Recently it has been found that the Trump administration has been drugging children without consent. Children as young as 14 were abused at a Stanton VA ICE facility. "Whenever they used to restrain me and put me in the chair, they would handcuff me," said a Honduran immigrant who was sent to the facility when he was 15 years old. "Strapped me down all the way, from your feet all the way to your chest, you couldn't really move. ... They have total control over you. They also put a bag over your head. It has little holes; you can see through it. But you feel suffocated with the bag on." 1,2,3

Throughout 2018, I.C.E. started another wave of deportations, breaking up hundreds of families, and mandated the legal separation incoming parents from their children (presumably to deter future asylum-seekers). ICE arrested 114 people in Sandusky OH. Trump and Jeff Sessions have ramped up a trend of forcible deportations started by Clinton and Obama. Between 2016 and 2017, apprehensions of undocumented immigrants jumped by a third. In 2017, President Trump deported more than double the number of noncriminals than Obama had the previous year. Those deported include a 10-year-old girl with cerebral palsy in San Antonio; a grandmother described as the “backbone” of a Navy veteran’s family; a father of two in Detroit who had lived in the U.S. since he was 10 years old. A major consequence of this new policy has been an explosion of fear among immigrant communities “When everyone’s a target, no one is safe,” says Luis Zayas, dean of the Steve Hicks School of Social Work at the University of Texas at Austin. He cites instances of ICE agents arresting people who had just filed paperwork for a green card, left church or dropped off their kids at school. “The arrests feel arbitrary, and that’s different,” he says. “The fear is worse now than I’ve ever seen it.” 1, 2,3

In July 2017, police shot Ismael Lopez, a Mississippi car mechanic, in the back of the head at his own home, killing him. While the police say that he was holding a weapon, his guns were nowhere near his dead body, and police also killed his dog, and bullet holes were found from police shooting through the front door. No officer has been charged.1

The United States Department of Homeland Security rescinded DACA, or Deferred Action on Childhood Arrivals, a program which protects ~ 800,000 minors from being deported, on June 16, 2017, while continuing to review the existence of the DACA program as a whole. The DACA policy was rescinded by the Trump administration on September 5, 2017, but full implementation of the rescission was delayed six months to give Congress time to decide how to deal with the population that was previously eligible under the policy. 1

Beginning in May 2017, ICE began another wave of deportation targeting Mexicans. Hugo Mejia and a coworker, Rodrigo Nuñez, were imprisoned by ICE officials, despite living in the US for 17 years, and having clean records.1

Beginning in 1994, sheriff Joe Arpaio opened up a "tent city", outside of phoenix, a facility which he called, his own "personal concentration camp", used to house prisoners, in terrible conditions. In 2011, inmates complained that fans near their beds were not working, and that their shoes were melting from the heat.[45] During the summer of 2003, when outside temperatures exceeded 110 °F (43 °C), Arpaio said to complaining inmates, "It's 120 degrees in Iraq and the soldiers are living in tents and they didn't commit any crimes, so shut your mouths!". Arpaio reinstuted chain gangs (for female prisoners as well), forcing people to work 7 hours a day, 7 days a week. Arpaio also entrapped 18-year-old James Saville into an assassination attempt against himself. Saville's attorneys eventually discovered that MCSO detectives had bought the bomb parts themselves, then convinced Saville to build it even though he was not predisposed to commit such a crime. On July 9, 2003, a Maricopa County Superior Court jury acquitted Saville, finding that the bomb plot was an elaborate publicity stunt to boost Arpaio's reelection bid. On April 4th, 2017, newly elected Phoenix sheriff Paul Penzone finally closed it down due to public pressure, after 23 years of operation. Trump pardoned sherriff Arpaio in August 2017, after holding a rally in Phoenix AZ in which police tear-gassed protesters. 1

On March 25th-27th, 2017, ICE agents arrested 84 immigrants in Oregon and Washington. Many arrested had no criminal background. Oregon Governor Katie Brown complied with ICE, but received vitriolic responses when she tweeted in support of immigrant families. 1

On March 27th, 2017, ICE agents in Chicago broke into the home of Felix Torres, and shot him while he and his family slept in their home. After speaking with Torres’ daughter, the People’s Response Team added that “no members of the family are undocumented, and the family has lived in the home for at least 30 years.”Carmen Torres said, “They didn’t say anything. They just came in and pointed pistols in our faces and dragged us out,” DNA Info reported. “It’s a lie when they say he was holding a gun. He doesn’t even own a gun,” she said. “They shot my dad. They shot him, and I don’t know why.” He is in critical condition. 1

In early 2017, ICE began a campaign of arrests and deportation of undocumented immigrants. 700 People have been arrested so far. 1

In the present day, ICE (U.S._Immigration_and_Customs_Enforcement), the police tasked with immigration enforcement, operates over 200 prison camps, housing over 31,000 undocumented people deemed "aliens", 20,000 of which have no criminal convictions, in the US system of immigration detention. The camps include forced labor (often with contracts from private companies), poor conditions, lack of rights (since the undocumented aren't considered citizens), and forced deportations, often splitting up families. Detainees are often held for a year without trial, with antiquated court procedures pushing back court dates for months, encouraging many to accept immediate deportation in the hopes of being able to return faster than the court can reach a decision, but forfeiting legal status, in a cruel system of coercion. After the creation of DHS and ICE, the budget for immigration enforcement doubled from $6.2 billion in 2002 to $12.5 billion in 2006 under Obama. 1, 2,3

In 1996, in response to increased immigration from countries such as El Salvador and Guatemala ravaged by US imperialism and authoritarian dictatorships, the US passed the Anti-Terrorism and effective Death Penalty Act, allowing deportation of any immigrant ever convicted of a crime, no matter how long ago or how serious. Lawful permanent residents who had married Americans and now had children were not exempt. The New York Times reported in July that "hundreds of long-term legal residents have been arrested since the law passed." 1

By 1984, during the Reagan-era of social services and welfare cutbacks, 42% of all Latino children and one-fourth of the families lived below the poverty line.

In 1983, a mostly latino workforce lead the 3-year long Arizona Copper Mine Strike of 1983, in which the police, national guard, and Arizona governor assisted in one of the largest strikebreaking incidents of the 1980s, ending with the Phelps Dodge Corporation replacing most of the workers and decertifying the unions. Miners were subject to undercover surveillance by the Arizona Criminal Intelligence Systems Agency, to identify strikers engaged in violence, with the governor sending 325 National Guard soldiers to Morenci, and increasing the number of state policemen there to 425. Meanwhile, the local government passed injunctions limiting both picketing and demonstrations at the mine. The Arizona copper mine strike would later become a symbol of defeat for American unions. 1

In 1954, the US implemented Operation Wetback, a US law enforcement initiative under Eisenhower to curb Mexican immigration, in which over 1 Million Mexicans were arrested. After implementation, Operation Wetback gave rise to arrests and deportations by the U.S. Border Patrol that were civil rights violations, which resulted in several hundred United States citizens being illegally deported without being given a chance to prove their citizenship. A total of 750 immigration and border patrol officers and investigators; 300 jeeps, cars and buses; and seven airplanes were allocated for the operation.[28] Teams were focused on quick processing, as planes were able to coordinate with ground efforts and quickly deport people into Mexico.[29] While the operation included the cities of Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Chicago, its main targets were border areas in Texas and California.[29] Overall, there were 1,078,168 apprehensions made in the first year of Operation Wetback, with 170,000 being rounded up from May to July 1954. In addition, many illegal immigrants fled to Mexico fearing arrest; over half a million from Texas alone. 1

In 1951, the Los Angeles Police Department severely beat up 5 latino and 2 white men, in an event called Bloody Christmas, leaving them with broken bones and ruptured organs, and covered it up. After pressure from the Mexican-American community, the LAPD opened up an internal inquiry, resulting in eight police officers being indicted for the assaults, 54 being transferred, and 39 suspended.1

Asians

Between 1956-65, the Chinese Confession Program sought confessions of illegal entry from US citizens and residents of Chinese origin, with the (misleading) offer of legalization of status in exchange. The program resulted in 13,895 confessions,[1][4] with about 10,000 in the San Francisco region (where the bulk of the illegally entering Chinese population was concentrated.[2] This was far less than the number of people suspected of having entered illegally, and the less than complete usage of the program was attributed to lack of trust in the United States immigration enforcement agencies among the Chinese population, the lack of clear benefits from confessing, and the risk of deportation faced by the confessor as well as his or her (blood and paper) family.[2] Since confessions by neighbors could implicate a person and cause him or her to be deported, the program created fear and distrust in many Chinese-American communities. Anybody who had illegally entered and came in contact with the FBI before he or she had confessed was subject to immediate deportation.[1] The confessions had a significant impact on the Chinese-American community: as a result of the confessions, 22,083 people were exposed and 11,294 paper son slots were closed.[1][5] For comparison, the 1950 Census listed 117,629 Chinese in America (excluding Hawaii).[1] 1

From 1942-46, FDR imprisoned ~120,000 Japanese Americans in concentration camps after the attack on pearl harbor. The conditions of the camps were notoriously horrible, and most were forced to make "loyalty oaths", or risk deportation and separation from their families. It was later admitted that government actions were based on "race prejudice, war hysteria, and a failure of political leadership". Most lost their homes and jobs, as whites took over vacated homes. 1

The repression faced by Chinese Americans in the 19th and 20th century are found in the articles, History of Chinese Americans, and Anti-Chinese Sentiment in the US.

The Immigration Act of 1917 imposed literacy tests on immigrants, and created new categories of inadmissible persons and barred immigration from the Asia-Pacific Zone.1

The Scott Act of 1888 was a law that prohibited Chinese laborers abroad or who planned future travels from returning. It left an estimated 20,000-30,000 Chinese outside the United States at the time stranded. 1

In 1882, the US passed the Chinese Exclusion Act, illegalizing Chinese immigration, in a long chain of anti-chinese legislation. It was repealed in 1943. 1

The San Francisco Riot of 1877 was a two-day pogrom waged against Chinese immigrants in San Francisco, California by the city's majority white population from the evening of July 23 through the night of July 24, 1877. The ethnic violence which swept Chinatown resulted in four deaths and the destruction of more than $100,000 worth of property belonging to the city's Chinese immigrant population.1

The Page Act of 1875 prohibited entry of immigrants considered undesirable, classifying that as any individual from Asia who was coming to America to be a forced laborer, any Asian woman who would engage in prostitution, and all people considered to be convicts in their own country. It was introduced to "end the danger of cheap Chinese labor and immoral Chinese women".[2] The Page Act was supposed to strengthen the ban against “coolie” laborers, by imposing a fine of up to $2,000 and maximum jail sentence of one year upon anyone who tried to bring a person from China, Japan,or any Asian country to the United States “without their free and voluntary consent, for the purpose of holding them to a term of service”.[3] However, these provisions, as well as those regarding convicts “had little effect at the time”.[4] On the other hand, the ban on female Asian immigrants was heavily enforced and proved to be a barrier for all Asian women trying to immigrate, especially Chinese.1

The Chinese Massacre of 1871 was a racially motivated riot which occurred on October 24, 1871 in Los Angeles, California, when a mob of around 500 white men entered Chinatown to attack, rob, and murder Chinese residents of the city.[1][2] An estimated 17 to 20 Chinese immigrants were systematically tortured and then hanged by the mob, making the event the largest mass lynching in American history.[1][2][3]1

The Pigtail Ordinance was a racist law passed in 1873 intended to force prisoners in San Francisco, California to have their hair cut within an inch of the scalp. It affected Han Chinese prisoners in particular, as it meant they would have their queue, a waist-long, braided pigtail, cut off. 1

The Anti-Coolie Act of 1862 was passed by the California legislature in an attempt to appease rising anger among white laborers about salary competition created by the influx of Chinese immigrants at the height of the California gold rush.The act sought to protect white laborers by imposing a monthly tax on Chinese immigrants seeking to do business in the state of California. 1

LGBTQ People

In 1969, LGBT activists began the Stonewall riots in response to a police raid in Greenwich Village, which highlighted a pattern of discrimination against gay people in the legal system. The Stonewall Inn It catered to an assortment of patrons and was known to be popular among the poorest and most marginalized people in the gay community: drag queens, transgender people, effeminate young men, butch lesbians, male prostitutes, and homeless youth. Police raids on gay bars were routine in the 1960s. The riot began an extended confrontation with the New York City police, and within weeks, Village residents quickly organized into activist groups to concentrate efforts on establishing places for gays and lesbians to be open about their sexual orientation without fear of being arrested. 1

In the 2nd Red and Lavendar Scare of 1947-56, Joseph McCarthy framed homosexuality as a dangerous, contagious social disease that posed a potential threat to state security.[59] Hundreds of suspected homosexuals were imprisoned or fired.1

Women

In the period following WWII, the US capitalist-controlled media, advertising, and consumer products industries propagandized and glorified the ideal of the housewife-consumer, in order to sell products, make labor space for returning soldiers, take advantage of women's unpaid labor in the home, and to help build a new workforce and potential army to combat the soviet union. This sparked an era of regression with respect to the feminist victories of the previous 50 years, and caused psychological damage and demoralization to an uncountable number of women. Women who remained in the labor force were primarily only allowed in subordinate positions such as secretaries, cleaning women, elementary school teachers, saleswomen, waitresses, and nurses. This is chronicled in the Feminine Mystique.

From the 1880s onward, many US states (27 + Puerto Rico in 1956) operated a system of forced sterilization of women, rooted in white supremacy. The principle targets were the mentally ill, Native Americans, and blacks. For example, in Sunflower County Mississippi, 60% of black women living there were sterilized without their permission. An estimated 3,406 Indian women were sterilized.[63] California eugenicists in 1933 began sending their literature overseas to german scientists and medical workers, sparking the beginnings of Nazi Eugenics. In the end, over 65,000 individuals were sterilized in 33 states, in all likelihood without the perspectives of ethnic minorities. 148 female prisoners in two California institutions were sterilized between 2006 and 2010 in a supposedly voluntary program, but it was determined that the prisoners did not give consent to the procedures. In Madrigal vs. Quilligan, many unsuspecting women were coerced to sign paperwork to perform sterilization, while others were told that the process could be reversed. None of the women were fluent in English. 10 latina women were sterilized, and the doctor was found innocent. 1,2,3

In the 1830s, The Lowell Mill Girls were female workers who came to work in industrial factories in Lowell, Massachusetts, during the Industrial Revolution, and who despite living in cramped boarding houses and working from 5am-7pm every day, developed a culture of defiance against the factory owners, and created reform associations, and began strikes in 1834 and 1836. 1

US elites in the 18th and 19th centuries pushed a narrative of domestic purity, or the cult of true womanhood, for women as a way of pacifying her with a doctrine of "separate but equal"-giving her work equally as important as the man's, but separate and different. Inside that "equality" there was the fact that the woman did not choose her mate, and once her marriage took place, her life was determined. One girl wrote in 1791: "The die is about to be cast which will probably determine the future happiness or misery of my life.... I have always anticipated the event with a degree of solemnity almost equal to that which will terminate my present existence." Marriage enchained, and children doubled the chains. One woman, writing in 1813: "The idea of soon giving birth to my third child and the consequent duties I shall he called to discharge distresses me so I feel as if I should sink."

Workers and the Poor

An analysis of 2016 data showed that 8 men control as much wealth as half of the world's population. Those 8 men are Bill Gates, Warren Buffett, Carlos Slim, Jeff Bezos, Mark Zuckerberg, Amancio Ortega, Larry Ellison and Michael Bloomberg, and are collectively worth $426 billion. 1

US authorities have a long history of murdering striking workers fighting for better conditions, dating back to the 1800s, up to the present day. According to a study in 1969, the United States has had the bloodiest and most violent labor history of any industrial nation in the world, and there have been few industries which have been immune.1 A long list of these deaths and disputes can be found here, and this article on the Labor History of the US.

US conservatives and authorities have systematically dismantled labor unions over the past few decades, and by 2011 fewer than 7% of employees in the private sector belong to unions. The number of major work stoppages fell by 97% from 381 in 1970 to 187 in 1980 to only 11 in 2010.129, 130 The accumulating weaknesses were exposed when President Ronald Reagan—a former union president—broke the Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization (PATCO) strike in 1981, dealing a major blow to unions.131 Union membership among workers in private industry shrank dramatically, though after 1970 there was growth in employees unions of federal, state and local governments.132,133 The intellectual mood in the 1970s and 1980s favored deregulation and free competition.134 Numerous industries were deregulated, including airlines, trucking, railroads and telephones, over the objections of the unions involved.135 Republicans, using conservative think tanks as idea farms, began to push through legislative blueprints to curb the power of public employee unions as well as eliminate business regulations.128,136 Union weakness in the Southern United States undermined unionization and social reform throughout the nation, and such weakness is largely responsible for the anaemic U.S. welfare state.137,1

In addition to artificial housing crises, the US has high numbers of homeless, despite the fact that there are, ~6 houses for every homeless person. Instead of human planning and intelligent distribution of resources, the US ruling class upholds the market as the "the most efficient way of allocating resources".

Although the US economy produces more than enough food to feed those in poverty, UNICEF, RESULTS, and Bread for the World estimate that 15 million people die each year from preventable poverty, of whom 11 million are children under the age of five. In addition, The US has a comparatively terrible social support system to fight poverty and prevent deaths: "approximately 245,000 deaths in the United States in the year 2000 were attributable to low levels of education, 176,000 to racial segregation, 162,000 to low social support, 133,000 to individual-level poverty, 119,000 to income inequality, and 39,000 to area-level poverty" (sources). That is 2 million people every 10 years in the US alone.1

In the modern day, 20,000 to 40,000 people die every year because of lack of universal health care or health insurance. On average, that's 300,000 over the last decade. 1


In January 2018 in Camden New Jersey, a 33 year old police Detective Rafael Martinez Jr raped and impregnated a 15-year old girl.. He negotiated a plea deal in which he only serves 5 months of probation, with no prison time. 1

On December 28th, 2017, Police in Wichita Kansas murdered an innocent man, 28-year-old Andrew Finch who was the recipient of "swatting" (where someone falsely reports an emergency to draw police to an address). The bodycam footage shows that the killing was entirely unjustified. The "swatter", Tyler Rai Bariss, has a long history of such pranks, 1,2

On December 24th, 2017, Police officers shot and killed an unarmed suspected car thief, Amanda lee jones, and a 6 year old boy, Kameron Prescott, in Bexar County Texas. Kameron Prescott is the youngest and 957th person killed by US police in 2017. Bexar County Sheriff Salazar is quoted as saying, “Right now, what I’m dealing with is a tragic accident that led to the death of this young man.” Young man was used instead of 6 year old boy.1,2

On August 15th, 2017, Police arrested 7 anti-racist activists for toppling a confederate statue in Durham, North Carolina. From New York to California, demonstrations have been organized since the death of Heather Heyer, who was protesting a white nationalist rally in Charlottesville. Many demonstrators connected with each other through public Facebook events. 1

On July 19th, 2017, Police arrested 155 demonstrators on capitol hill, for protesting a republican-lead health care dismantling initiative by Mitch McConnell, by occupying republican offices. Authorities said demonstrators were warned “to cease and desist with their unlawful demonstration activities” before police made arrests. Police arrested 80 people for the same charge on July 10th. 1

In January, 2016, Philip “Mitch” Brailsford, a police officer in Mesa Arizona, killed Daniel Shaver, after someone called in a report of him holding a gun (which turned out to be a pellet gun), out of a hotel window. Brailsford was charged for second-degree murder, and acquitted by a jury a year later. After his acquittal, the court released the graphic bodycam footage showing Daniel Shaver crawling on his hands and knees and begging for his life before he was brutally murdered. After giving contradictory commands, such as telling Daniel to cross his legs, put his face down in the carpet, put his hands behind his head, and crawl towards them, the officer said, "I’m not here to be tactical and diplomatic with you. You listen. You obey... If you move, we’re going to consider that a threat and we are going to deal with it and you may not survive it".1, 2

In March 2015, former US Marshal and DEA agent Matthew Fogg reported in an interview that DEA agents were instructed not to enforce drug laws in richer, white areas. His superior state, “You know, if we go out there and start messing with those folks, they know judges, they know lawyers, they know politicians. You start locking their kids up, somebody’s going to jerk our chain.” He said they’re going to call us on it, and before you know it, they’re going to shut us down, and there goes your overtime. 1

In 2014 in Flint, Michigan, the city exposed over 100,000 residents to high levels of lead in the drinking water due to insufficient water treatment in the Flint Water Crisis. A federal state of emergency was declared in January 2016 and Flint residents were instructed to use only bottled or filtered water for drinking, cooking, cleaning, and bathing. At least six have died from Legionnaires disease from the poisoning. As of 2017, the crisis is ongoing. Residents are instructed to continue to use bottled or filtered water until all the lead pipes have been replaced, which is expected to be completed no sooner than 2020. 1

Since January, 2013, over 21 US cities have enacted legislation to restrict giving food to the homeless, such as requiring expensive permits to discourage food donations in public spaces, or direct police intervention. In Tampa FL, on January 9th, 2017, police arrested 7 volunteers of Food Not Bombs and 1 homeless person to prevent them from distributing food. 1

From 1980s to the present day, Justice for Janitors Campaigns (a group fighting against the low wages and minimal health-care coverage given to janitors worldwide) in the US have been the target of police arrests and crackdowns. On November 20, 2006, a few days after dozens of strikers and their supporters were arrested by Houston police while engaging in nonviolent civil disobedience. 1

In 1996, Congress signed into law the deceptively titled Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act, which capitalized on a demonization of the poor as being lazy (in reality there was a lack of jobs, and low-wage work proved unable to sustain most families), in order to dismantle welfare benefits. Its aim was to force poor families receiving federal cash benefits (many of them single mothers with children) to go to work, by cutting off their benefits after two years, limiting lifetime benefits to five years, and allowing people without children to get food stamps for only three months in any three-year period. 1

In 1988, Police charged a tent city/homeless center in Tompkins square, arresting and clubbing protesters, injuring 35 people and arresting 9 more. "It's time to bring a little law and order back to the park and restore it to the legitimate members of the community," said Captain McNamara. "We don't want to get into a situation where we under-police something like this and it turns into a fiasco." Protesters held up signs saying "Gentrification is Class War". 1

In 1988, a founder of Food Not Bombs, Keith McHenry, was one of nine volunteers arrested for sharing food and literature at Golden Gate Park on August 15, 1988.[1] In the following years, Keith was arrested over 100 times for serving free food in city parks and spent over 500 nights in jail. He faced 25 years to life in prison under the California Three Strikes Law but in 1995, Amnesty International and the United Nations Human Rights Commission brought about his release.[2] 1

In 1985-86, Hormel workers went on strike in Austin Minnesota, due to a cutwage from $10.69 to $6.50 and significantly reduced benefits. After six months, a significant number of strikebreakers crossed the picket line, provoking riots in Austin. On January 21, 1986, the Governor of Minnesota, Rudy Perpich, called in the National Guard to protect the strikebreakers. The strike ended in June 1986, after lasting 10 months. Over 700 of the workers did not return to their jobs, refusing to cross the picket line. In solidarity with those workers, the boycott of Hormel products continued for some time. Ultimately, however, the company did succeed in hiring new workers at significantly lower wages. 1

In 1983, a mostly latino workforce lead the 3-year long Arizona Copper Mine Strike of 1983, in which the police, national guard, and Arizona governor assisted in one of the largest strikebreaking incidents of the 1980s, ending with the Phelps Dodge Corporation replacing most of the workers and decertifying the unions. Miners were subject to undercover surveillance by the Arizona Criminal Intelligence Systems Agency, to identify strikers engaged in violence, with the governor sending 325 National Guard soldiers to Morenci, and increasing the number of state policemen there to 425. Meanwhile, the local government passed injunctions limiting both picketing and demonstrations at the mine. The Arizona copper mine strike would later become a symbol of defeat for American unions. 1

In 1981, the union PATCO (Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization), went on strike for better working conditions, pay, and a shorter work week. The union was decertified, declared illegal, and the strike broken by the Reagan Administration. It is considered one of the last death throes of the US labor movement. 1

In May, 1970, the Ohio national guard shot and killed 4 college students, and wounded 9 others in the Kent State Shootings. Some of the students who were shot had been protesting the Cambodian Bombing Campaign, which President Richard Nixon announced during a television address on April 30. Other students who were shot had been walking nearby or observing the protest from a distance. There was a significant national response to the shootings: hundreds of universities, colleges, and high schools closed throughout the US due to a student strike of 4 million students, and the event further affected public opinion, at an already socially contentious time, over the role of the United States in the Vietnam War. 1

From 1947-56, beginning with a 1947 Truman Executive order that required all federal civil services employees to be screen for "loyalty", a second Red Scare took place with senator Joseph McCarthy at its head, accusing large numbers of people of being communist infiltrators and homosexuals, resulting in hundreds of imprisonments and some 10,000-12,000 people accused losing their jobs. The primary targets of such suspicions were government employees, those in the entertainment industry, educators and union activists, who McCarthy publicly targeted through the anti-communist House of Un-American Activies Committee (HUAC) hearings or public statements. The number imprisoned is in the hundreds, and some ten or twelve thousand lost their jobs.[54] In many cases simply being subpoenaed by HUAC or one of the other committees was sufficient cause to be fired.[55] In the context of the Cold War, McCarthy framed homosexuality as a dangerous, contagious social disease that posed a potential threat to state security.[59] 1

In 1947, the Taft-Hartley Act remains an anti-worker law intended to dismantle and break up labor unions (around 1/4 workers were in unions at that time). It was passed by capitalists as a response to the post-WW2 strike wave of 1945-46, as more than 5 million workers went on strike during the labor upsurge of returning soldiers. The Taft–Hartley Act prohibited jurisdictional strikes, wildcat strikes, solidarity or political strikes, secondary boycotts, secondary and mass picketing, closed shops, and monetary donations by unions to federal political campaigns. It also required union officers to sign non-communist affidavits with the government. Union shops were heavily restricted, and states were allowed to pass right-to-work laws that ban agency fees. Furthermore, the executive branch of the federal government could obtain legal strikebreaking injunctions if an impending or current strike imperiled the national health or safety. The amendments required unions and employers to give 80 days' notice to each other and to certain state and federal mediation bodies before they may undertake strikes or other forms of economic action in pursuit of a new collective bargaining agreement. Anyone opposed to the act was labeled a communist, in the rising red scare initiated by McCarthy. 1

In 1934, in the midst of the worsening conditions of the great depression, 400,000 textile workers from New England, the Mid-Atlantic states and the U.S. Southern states, went on strike for 22 days. Deputies and armed strikebreakers in South Carolina fired on pickets, killing seven, wounding twenty others. State authorities aided by the national guard suppressed the strikes, killing and arresting dozens of picketers and strikers across the nation. Governor Blackwood of South Carolina called out the National Guard with orders to shoot to kill any picketers who tried to enter the mills. Other governors soon followed suit. Nate Shaw, a black alabama sharecropper on strike, was shot and arrested in late 1932, and served twelve years in an Alabama prison.1

In 1934, sailors in San Francisco began a general strike known as the 1934 West Coast Waterfront Strike. Police attempted to break up the strike by shooting tear gas into the crowd, and charging the protesters on horseback. Police then fired shotguns and revolvers into the crowd, killing 6 workers, in an event known as "Bloody Thursday". A state of emergency was declared, and the governor sent in the california national guard and federal army soldiers with machine gun mounted trucks to assist vigilante strike-breakers. Over 150 workers were arrested. 1

In 1932, A Bonus Army consisting of 43,000 poor WWI veterans and their supporters gathered in Washington, D.C. in to demand cash-payment redemption of their service certificates. Four troops of cavalry, four companies of infantry, a machine gun squadron, and six tanks assembled near the White House. General Douglas MacArthur was in charge of the operation, Major Dwight Eisenhower his aide. George S. Patton was one of the officers. MacArthur led his troops down Pennsylvania Avenue, used tear gas to clear veterans out of the old buildings, and set the buildings on fire. Then the army moved across the bridge to Anacostia. Thousands of veterans,wives, children, began to run as the tear gas spread. The soldiers set fire to some of the huts, and soon the whole encampment was ablaze. When it was all over, two veterans had been shot to death,an eleven-week-old baby had died, an eight-year-old boy was partially blinded by gas, two police had fractured skulls, and a thousand veterans were injured by gas. 1

In the 1930s, the Harlan County War, was a series of coal mining-related skirmishes, executions, bombings, and strikes that took place in Harlan County, Kentucky. The incidents involved coal miners and union organizers on one side, organizing their workplaces and fighting for better wages and working conditions, and coal firms and law enforcement officials on the other. 1

The Wall Street Crash of 1929, caused by a capitalist speculative bubble throughout 1920s, hit working families the hardest, and along with the Dust Bowl, resulted in the Great Depression, which had devastating social and economic effects on working people everywhere. Unemployment skyrocketed to 25%, poverty and hunger increased, and many families were displaced and forced to leave their homes in search of work elsewhere. The worsening material conditions gave rise to a large movement of industrial unionism (mainly the AFL-CIO), and many large strikes in which workers fought to regain their livelihood. This growing revolutionary movement scared American capitalists into making concessions, and was only pacified by the promises of FDR's social-democratic New Deal, which had the effect of preserving American Capitalism, and dismantling the growing labor movement. 1

In the late 1920s, during prohibition, the US treasury department, under orders from Calvin Coolidge's government, intentionally poisoned alcohol supplies leading to the deaths of at least 700 people, with thousands more suffering from alcohol poisoning from methyl alcohol. Public health officials responded with shock. "The government knows it is not stopping drinking by putting poison in alcohol," said New York City medical examiner Charles Norris, "[Y]et it continues its poisoning processes, heedless of the fact that people determined to drink are daily absorbing that poison. Knowing this to be true, the United States government must be charged with the moral responsibility for the deaths that poisoned liquor causes, although it cannot be held legally responsible." Most of those sickened and dying were those "who cannot afford expensive protection and deal in low grade stuff." The program was finally ended in 1933. 1

In 1922, the Great Railroad Strike of 1922 was a 400,000 person-strong nationwide strike of railroad workers, with police and armed company guards killing 10 workers or their family members. Troops bolstered armed company guards in their work protecting railroad property and aiding in the defense and transportation of strikebreakers, thereby working to undermine the strike effort.[12] 1

In 1921, The Battle of Blair Mountain was the largest labor uprising in US history and one of the largest, best-organized, and most well-armed uprisings since the American Civil War, resulting in the US army killing 50-100 strikers, and arresting ~1000 more. In Logan County, West Virginia, some 10,000 armed coal miners confronted 3,000 lawmen and strikebreakers, called the Logan Defenders,[2] who were backed by coal mine operators during an attempt by the miners to unionize the southwestern West Virginia coalfields. The battle ended after approximately one million rounds were fired,[3] and the United States Army intervened by presidential order.

In 1920, the Battle of Matewan was a shootout between coal miners and the Baldwin-Felts detective agency, after they attempted to evict striking miners from company houses. Shooting of undetermined origins resulted in the deaths of two coal miners, seven agents, and the mayor, with Sheriff Sid Hatfield siding with the miners to defend them. Afterward, when the charges against Hatfield and 22 others for the murder of Albert Felts were dismissed, Baldwin-Felts detectives assassinated Hatfield and his deputy Ed Chambers on August 1, 1921, on the steps of the McDowell County courthouse in Welch, West Virginia. None of the Baldwin-Felts detectives was ever convicted of Hatfield's assassination: they claimed they had acted "in self-defense". 1

In 1919, An IWW general strike took place in Seattle, Washington, in which dissatisfied workers in several unions began a strike to gain higher wages after two years of World War I wage controls. The strike was put down by the City's mayor, who called in federal troops and nearby police. 39 labor leaders labeled as 'Bolsheviki' were arrested, with Seattle's mayor Ole Hanson taking credit for ending the strike. He resigned a few months later and toured the country giving lectures on the dangers of "domestic bolshevism", earning $38,000 in seven months, five times his annual salary as mayor. After WWI, the IWW was largely dismantled. 1

In 1919, A massacre in Centralia Washington occurred when the city-supported American legion attacked IWW labor organizers, killing 6 people. Frank Everett, one of the wobbly organizers, escaped, was dragged back to town behind an automobile, suspended him from a telegraph pole, then locked him in jail. That night, his jailhouse door was broken down, he was dragged out,put on the floor of a car, his genitals were cut off, and then he was taken to a bridge, lynched, and his body riddled with bullets. Seven wobblies were imprisoned and sentenced to 25-40 years by city officials. The primary reason for this was that the growing anti-war labor movement was seen as a threat to capitalists in Centralia. 1

In 1914, Woodrow Wilson instituted the first modern draft (fighting without pay), since only 73,000 people volunteered (indicating low support for the war), and plunged American workers into WWI, widely regarded as an imperialist war between European capitalist powers over boundaries, colonies, and spheres of influence in Europe, Africa, and the Middle East, in which millions were killed and wounded. Around 900 anti-war socialists such as Eugene Debs were arrested and imprisoned under the Espionage Act for "obstructing the recruiting or enlistment service."1

In 1914, The Ludlow Massacre was an attack by the Colorado National Guard and Colorado Fuel & Iron Company camp guards on a tent colony of 1,200 striking coal miners and their families at Ludlow, Colorado, fighting for an 8-hour work day, better pay, and union recognition, as part of the larger Colorado Coalfield War. The national and camp guards killed 19-26 people, including two women and eleven children. To finish clearing out the camp, the Guard moved down from the hills with torches, set fire to the tents, and the families fled into the hills. In retaliation for Ludlow, the miners armed themselves and attacked dozens of mines over the next ten days, destroying property and engaging in several skirmishes with the Colorado National Guard along a 40-mile front from Trinidad to Walsenburg.[2] The entire strike would cost between 69 and 199 lives. Congress responded to public outcry by directing the House Committee on Mines and Mining to investigate the incident.[5] Its report, published in 1915, was influential in promoting child labor laws and an eight-hour work day. Historian Howard Zinn described the Ludlow Massacre as "the culminating act of perhaps the most violent struggle between corporate power and laboring men in American history". 1

In 1912, the Paint Creek Mine War was a violent series of confrontations between striking coal miners in West Virginia, and police. The confrontation directly caused perhaps fifty violent deaths, as well as many more deaths indirectly caused by starvation and malnutrition among the striking miners. In the number of casualties it counts among the worst conflicts in American labor union history. The strike was a prelude to subsequent labor-related West Virginia conflicts in the following years, the Battle of Matewan and the Battle of Blair Mountain. 1

In 1912, immigrant workers began a Textile Strike in Lawrence Massachusetts, lead by the IWW, prompted by a two-hour pay-cut. The strike united workers from more than 40 different nationalities.[2] Carried on throughout a brutally cold winter, the strike lasted more than two months, defying the assumptions of conservative trade unions within the American Federation of Labor (AFL) that immigrant, largely female and ethnically divided workers could not be organized. Lawrence police killed 2 people, beat a pregnant woman to miscarriage, and arrested >250. Congressional hearings followed, resulting in exposure of shocking conditions in the Lawrence mills and calls for investigation of the "wool trust." Mill owners soon decided to settle the strike, giving workers in Lawrence and throughout New England raises of up to 20 percent. Within a year, however, the IWW had largely collapsed in Lawrence.1

In the year 1904, 27,000 workers were killed on the job due to industrial accidents from poor have been few industries which have been immune.[1]. A long working conditions, in manufacturing, transport, and agriculture. In one year, 50,000 accidents took place in New York factories alone. Hat and cap makers were getting respiratory diseases, quarrymen were inhaling deadly chemicals, lithographic printers were getting arsenic poisoning. According to a report of the Commission on Industrial Relations, in 1914, 35,000 workers were killed in industrial accidents and 700,000 injured.1

The Coal Strike of 1902 was a strike by 150,000 miners of the United Mine Workers of America in the anthracite coalfields of eastern Pennsylvania. Miners struck for higher wages, shorter workdays and the recognition of their union. Although it was resolved with a modest pay increase (but a refusal to recognize the UMWA union), police killed several strikers. An immigrant striker named Anthony Giuseppe was found fatally shot near a Lehigh Valley Coal Company colliery in Old Forge; it was thought the Coal and Iron Police guarding the site shot blindly through a fence.[18] Contemporary reporting describes three other deaths and widespread shooting injuries among strikers and Shenandoah police. [20] On October 9, a striker named William Durham was shot and killed in Brownsville, Pennsylvania, near Shenandoah. He’d been loitering near the half-dynamited house of a non-union worker and disobeyed an order to halt.[21] 1

In 1894, the Pullman Strike was one of the bloodiest battles between police and workers in US history. The conflict began in Pullman, Chicago, when nearly 4,000 factory employees of the Pullman Company began a wildcat strike in response to recent reductions in wages, despite not reducing the rents or cost of goods in the company town. Debs and the ARU called a massive boycott against all trains that carried a Pullman car. It affected most rail lines west of Detroit and at its peak involved some 250,000 workers in 27 states. Thirty people were killed by the police. The federal government obtained an injunction against the union, Debs, and other boycott leaders, ordering them to stop interfering with trains that carried mail cars. After the strikers refused, President Grover Cleveland ordered in the Army to stop the strikers from obstructing the trains. Violence broke out in many cities, and the strike collapsed. Defended by a team including Clarence Darrow, Debs was convicted of violating a court order and sentenced to prison; the ARU then dissolved.1

During the late 19th century, the Pinkertons were a private security firm hired by the wealthy to infiltrate unions, supply guards, keep strikers and suspected unionists out of factories, and recruit goon squads to intimidate workers. The Pinkertons were also used as guards in coal, iron, and lumber disputes in Illinois, Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia as well as the Great Railroad Strike of 1877 and the Battle of Blair Mountain in 1921. After bad publicity, and the rise of organized labor by the 1930s, police forces and the national guard were required to suppress the labor movement. 1

In 1892, the Homestead Strike was an industrial lockout and strike between Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania steel workers, and the Carnegie steel company, who hired armed Pinkertons to act as strike-breakers. It culminated in a battle between strikers and private security agents on July 6, 1892.[3] The battle was one of the most serious disputes in U.S. labor history, third behind the Ludlow Massacre and the Battle of Blair Mountain. After the thousands of rioters forced the encircled pinkertons to surrender, the US sent in national guard troops to suppress the strike, killing ~9 and arresting hundreds. 1

The Coal Wars were a series of armed labor conflicts in the US between striking workers, and the police and paid private security firms, between 1890 and 1930. Although they occurred mainly in the East, particularly in Appalachia, there was a significant amount of violence in Colorado after the turn of the century. Coal capitalists paid private detectives as well as public law enforcement agents to ensure that union organizers were kept out of the region, using intimidation, harassment, espionage, and murder. Mining families lived under the terror of Baldwin-Felts detective agents who were professional strikebreakers under the hire of coal operators. During that dispute, agents drove a heavily armored train through a tent colony at night, opening fire on women, men, and children with a machine gun. 1

In 1886, Chicago police killed several workers, and arrested many more striking in support of an 8-hour work day. The next day, they then attempted to break up the strike, upon which an unknown person threw a dynamite bomb at police, killing several, in the Haymarket Affair. Four anarchists were tried and hanged without evidence, and their executions aroused a funeral march of 25,000 in Chicago. 1

The Great Railroad strike of 1877 was a nationwide strike in New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Illinois, and Missouri, after the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad (B&O) cut wages for the third time in a year. The strike finally ended some 45 days later after it was put down by local and state militias, and federal troops, who murdered around ~100 workers or family members, and arrested ~1000 people. A newspaper recounting the situation in Chicago reports: "The sound of clubs falling on skulls was sickening for the first minute, until one grew accustomed to it. A rioter dropped at every whack, it seemed, for the ground was covered with them." The railroads made some concessions, withdrew some wage cuts, but also strengthened their "Coal and Iron Police." 1

In 1874, Police charged and broke up a labor demonstration of unemployed workers in Tompkins Square, New York. One newspaper reported: Police clubs rose and fell. Women and children ran screaming in all directions. Many of them were trampled underfoot in the stampede for the gates. In the street bystanders were ridden down and mercilessly clubbed by mounted officers. 1

In 1841, Dorrs's Rebellion was an armed insurrection against Rhode Island elites in order to give universal suffrage to factory workers and immigrants, previously only granted to those who owned land and had at least $134. Dorr had originally supported granting voting rights to blacks, but he changed his position in 1840 because of pressure from white immigrants, who wanted to gain the vote first. The "Dorrites" led an unsuccessful attack against the arsenal in Providence, Rhode Island on May 19, 1842. Dorr eventually disbanded his forces, realizing that he would be defeated in battle by the approaching militia, and fled the state. Governor King issued a warrant for Dorr's arrest with a reward of $5,000.1

Throughout the late 1800s, robber barons and wealthy industrialists like J.P. Morgan, John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, Philip Armour, Jay Gould, and the Mellon Family, presided over the Gilded Age, a period of massive wealth and resource accumulation into a small number of hands. The wealthy capitalists pushed state and federal legislation to serve their interests, and succeeded in enlisting the police to serve their interests, including pushing farmers and Native Americans off their land. Henry George and others criticized the immense accumulation of property, pointing out that the lowest classes did not share in the gains of luxury and comfort.

In the 1830s, after the accumulation of farmland by a few wealthy families, thousands of farmers forced to rent their land formed Anti-Rent associations to prevent evictions, culminating in the Anti-Rent War, a guerilla war between bands of sheriffs and farmers. The wealthy used sheriffs and deputies to evict thousands of returning civil war veterans unable to pay rent. The farmers had fought, been crushed by the law, their struggle diverted into voting, and the system stabilized by enlarging the class of small landowners, leaving the basic structure of rich and poor intact. It was a common sequence in American history.

From 1786-87, Shays' Rebellion was an armed uprising in Massachusetts over dissatisfaction from returning veterans. The rural farming population was generally unable to meet the demands being made of them by merchants or the civil authorities, and individuals began to lose their land and other possessions when they were unable to fulfill their debt and tax obligations. This led to strong resentments against tax collectors and the courts, where creditors obtained and enforced judgments against debtors, and where tax collectors obtained judgments authorizing property seizures. It,and similar conflicts and unrest were pacified by the passing of the 1789 Bill of Rights. 1

In 1787, James Madison in the Federalist Paper #10, outlined the primary role of the US constitution, arguing that representative government was needed to maintain peace in a society ridden by factional disputes. These disputes came from "the various and unequal distribution of property. Those who hold and those who are without property have ever formed distinct interests in society." The problem, he said, was how to control the factional struggles that came from inequalities in wealth. Minority factions could be controlled, he said, by the principle that decisions would be by vote of the majority. So the real problem, according to Madison, was a majority faction, and here the solution was offered by the Constitution, to have "an extensive republic," that is, a large nation ranging over thirteen states, for then "it will be more difficult for all who feel it to discover their own strength,and to act in unison with each other.... The influence of factious leaders may kindle a flame within their particular States, but will be unable to spread a general conflagration through the other States." Madison's argument can be seen as a sensible argument for having a government which can maintain peace and avoid continuous disorder. But is it the aim of government simply to maintain order, as a referee, between two equally matched fighters? Or is it that government has some special interest in maintaining a certain kind of order, a certain distribution of power and wealth, a distribution in which government officials are not neutral referees but participants? In that case, the disorder they might worry about is the disorder of popular rebellion against those monopolizing the society's wealth. This interpretation makes sense when one looks at the economic interests, the social backgrounds, of the makers of the Constitution. Charles Beard warned us that governments-including the government of the United States-are not neutral, that they represent the dominant economic interests, and that their constitutions are intended to serve these interests.

The 1787 US Constitution is falsely portrayed as a document representing an ideal of social and political equality, despite every framer being a rich white propertied man. Historian Charles Beard found that a majority of the framers were lawyers by profession, that most of them were men of wealth, in land, slaves, manufacturing, or shipping, that half of them had money loaned out at interest, and that forty of the fifty-five held government bonds, according to the records of the Treasury Department. Thus, Beard found that most of the makers of the Constitution had some direct economic interest in establishing a strong federal government: the manufacturers needed protective tariffs; the money lenders wanted to stop the use of paper money to pay off debts; the land speculators wanted protection as they invaded Indian lands; slave-owners needed federal security against slave revolts and runaways; bondholders wanted a government able to raise money by nationwide taxation, to pay off those bonds. Four groups, Beard noted, were not represented in the Constitutional Convention: slaves, indentured servants, women, men without property. And so the Constitution did not reflect the interests of those groups. He later wrote: "Inasmuch as the primary object of a government, beyond the mere repression of physical violence, is the making of the rules which determine the property relations of members of society, the dominant classes whose rights are thus to be determined must perforce obtain from the government such rules as are consonant with the larger interests necessary to the continuance of their economic processes, or they must themselves control the organs of government."

The American Revolution is falsely portrayed as being a social revolution. Carl Degler says (Out of Our Past): "No new social class came to power through the door of the American revolution. The men who engineered the revolt were largely members of the colonial ruling class." George Washington was the richest man in America. John Hancock was a prosperous Boston merchant. Benjamin Franklin was a wealthy printer. Edmund Morgan sums up the class nature of the Revolution this way: "The fact that the lower ranks were involved in the contest should not obscure the fact that the contest itself was generally a struggle for office and power between members of an upper class: the new against the established." Looking at the situation after the Revolution, Richard Morris comments: "Everywhere one finds inequality." He finds "the people" of "We the people of the United States" (a phrase coined by the very rich governor Morris) did not mean Indians or blacks or women or white servants. In fact, there were more indentured servants than ever, and the Revolution "did nothing to end and little to ameliorate white bondage."

Prisoners

The US currently operates a system of slave labor camps, including at least 54 prison farms involved in agricultural slave labor. Outside of agricultural slavery, Federal Prison Industries operates a multi-billion dollar industry with ~ 52 prison factories, where prisoners produce furniture, clothing, circuit boards, products for the military, computer aided design services, call center support for private companies. 1, 2, 3

Ramping up since the 1980s, the term prison–industrial complex is used to attribute the rapid expansion of the US inmate population to the political influence of private prison companies and businesses that supply goods and services to government prison agencies. Such groups include corporations that contract prison labor, construction companies, surveillance technology vendors, companies that operate prison food services and medical facilities, private probation companies, lawyers, and lobby groups that represent them. Activist groups such as the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML) have argued that the prison-industrial complex is perpetuating a flawed belief that imprisonment is an effective solution to social problems such as homelessness, unemployment, drug addiction, mental illness, and illiteracy. 1

The War On Drugs, a policy of arrest and imprisonment targeting minorities, first initiated by Nixon, has over the years created a monstrous system of mass incarceration, resulting in the imprisonment of 1.5 million people each year, with the US having the most prisoners per capita of any nation. One in five black Americans will spend time behind bars due to drug laws. The war has created a permanent underclass of impoverished people who have few educational or job opportunities as a result of being punished for drug offenses, in a vicious cycle of oppression. 1, 2

In the present day, ICE (U.S._Immigration_and_Customs_Enforcement), the police tasked with immigration enforcement, operates over 200 prison camps, housing over 31,000 undocumented people deemed "aliens", 20,000 of which have no criminal convictions, in the US system of immigration detention. The camps include forced labor (often with contracts from private companies), poor conditions, lack of rights (since the undocumented aren't considered citizens), and forced deportations, often splitting up families. Detainees are often held for a year without trial, with antiquated court procedures pushing back court dates for months, encouraging many to accept immediate deportation in the hopes of being able to return faster than the court can reach a decision, but forfeiting legal status, in a cruel system of coercion. 1, 2

Over 90% of criminal trials in the US are settled not by a judge or jury, but with plea bargaining, a system where the defendant agrees to plead guilty in return for a concession from the prosecutor. It has been statistically shown to benefit prosecutors, who "throw the book" at defendants by presenting a slew of charges, manipulating their fear, who in turn accept a lesser charge, regardless of their innocence, in order to avoid a worst outcome. The number of potentially innocent prisoners coerced into accepting a guilty plea is impossible to calculate. Plea bargaining can present a dilemma to defense attorneys, in that they must choose between vigorously seeking a good deal for their present client, or maintaining a good relationship with the prosecutor for the sake of helping future clients. Plea bargaining is forbidden in most European countries. John Langbein has equated plea bargaining to medieval torture: "There is, of course, a difference between having your limbs crushed if you refuse to confess, or suffering some extra years of imprisonment if you refuse to confess, but the difference is of degree, not kind. Plea bargaining, like torture, is coercive. Like the medieval Europeans, the Americans are now operating a procedural system that engages in condemnation without adjudication." 1

A grand jury is a special legal proceeding in which a prosecutor may hold a trial before the real one, where ~20 jurors listen to evidence and decide whether criminal charges should be brought. Grand juries are rarely made up of a jury of the defendant's peers, and defendants do not have the right to an attorney, making them essentially show-trials for the prosecution, who often find ways of using grand jury testimony to intimidate the accused, such as leaking stories about grand jury testimony to the media to defame the accused. In the murders of Michael Brown, Eric Garner, and Tamir Rice, all of whom were unarmed and killed by police in 2014, grand juries decided in all 3 cases not to pursue criminal trials against the officers. The US and Liberia are the only countries where grand juries are still legal. 1

The US system of bail (the practice of releasing suspects before their hearing for money paid to the court) has been criticized as monetizing justice, favoring rich, white collar suspects, over poorer people unable to pay for their release. 1

A black-site interrogation warehouse in Chicago called Homan Square, is notorious for sexual abuse, torture, and dissappearances of its prisoners. The main interrogator, Richard Zuley, applied torture techniques he learned at Guantanamo bay at Homan Square1, 2, 3

On Oct 25th, 2014, a mentally ill inmate, Michael Anthony Kerr, at the Alexander Correctional Institution in Taylorsville, NC, died of thirst after being denied water during a 35-day solitary confinement. Prison officials have said since Kerr’s death six months ago that they would investigate the events that led to his death, but no report has been issued and officials have not said when one would be. 1

On May 23rd, 2014, a mentally ill inmate at a Dade county correctional facility near Miami FL was tortured to death by prison guards. Darren Rainey was serving a two year sentence for cocaine possession when he was forced into a locked shower by prison guards as punishment for defecating in his cell, says one inmate. Once Rainey was inside the shower, guards blasted him with scalding hot water as he begged for his life. Investigators determined that there is not enough evidence to charge the guards. 1

The Crime bill of 1994, signed into law by Bill Clinton, increased the size of the US prison industry, and dealt with the problem of crime by emphasizing punishment, not prevention. It extended the death penalty to a whole range of criminal offenses, and provided $30 billion for the building of new prisons, to crack down on "super predators", a term used by Hillary Clinton to refer to remorseless juvenile criminals. 1

In the 1978 case Houchins v. KQED, Inc. the supreme court ruled that the news media do not have guaranteed rights of access to jails and prisons. It ruled also that prison authorities could forbid inmates to speak to one another, assemble, or spread literature about the formation of a prisoners' union.1

In September, 1971, prison guards killed George Jackson, a black Marxist and member of the Black Panthers in San Quentin prison (who had served 10 years of an indeterminate prison sentence for a $70 robbery), after he attempted to free himself and other inmates. Outrage over this, terrible prison conditions, and mistreatment by white prison guards, caused the Attica Prison Riot, in which 33 inmates and 10 prison guards were killed, and sparked dozens of prison riots across the country. In Attica, 100 percent of the guards were white, prisoners spent fourteen to sixteen hours a day in their cells, their mail was read, their reading material restricted, their visits from families conducted through a mesh screen, their medical care disgraceful, 75% were there as a result of plea bargaining, and their parole system inequitable.

Many companies in the 1800s were guilty of using prison laborers, such as the Tennesee Coal Iron and Railroad company. In 1891, the prison workers struck, overpowered the guards, and other neighboring unions came to their aid.

Religious minorities

From February to April of 1994, ATF (Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms) and FBI forces besieged a religious compound in Waco, Texas, after a botched raid and arrest attempt of the leader of the branch davidians, David Koresh, for sexual abuse and weapons charges. After a failed negotiation, tanks were used to rip apart the building, while highly flammable tear gas was shot into the building. 76 people, including pregnant women and children, were burned alive in the firestorm. The event is chronicled in the documentary, Waco: Rules of Engagement.1

Pervasive

Police repression against minorities and the poor have been increasing in the last few years, leading to the establishing of several online databases, such as this one by the washington post documenting shooting-deaths by police, and killedbypolice.net. US police shot and killed 952 people in 2017, 963 people in 2016, and 991 in 2015.

The Paradise papers, first made public on November 5th, 2017, are a leak of 1.4 TB of electronic documents relating to offshore investments, detailing the secrets of the world's elites hidden wealth. The leaks implicated hundreds of the wealthiest people and companies on the planet in financial schemes. According to the papers, Facebook, Twitter, Apple, Disney, Uber, Nike, Walmart, Allianz, Siemens, McDonald's, and Yahoo! are among the corporations that own offshore companies, as well as Allergan, the manufacturer of Botox. Some people implicated in tax avoidance schemes are Prince Charles and Queen Elizabeth II, President of Colombia Juan Manuel Santos, U.S. Secretary of Commerce Wilbur Ross, Rex Tillerson, Paul Allen (Microsoft), Bono, Carl Icahn, Sheldon Adelson, George Soros, and 3 former canadian prime ministers.1, 2

On July 23rd, 2017, the ACLU filed a lawsuit against Washington DC police, after police sexually abused protestors arrested during Donald Trump’s inauguration on January 20, when hundreds were arrested. A complaint by four plaintiffs charges officers stripped them, grabbed their genitalia and inserted fingers into their anuses while other officers laughed. One of the plaintiffs, photojournalist Shay Horse, said, "I felt like they were using molestation and rape as punishment. They used those tactics to inflict pain and misery on people who are supposed to be innocent until proven guilty." In a statement, D.C.'s Metropolitan Police Department promised an investigation but defended its officers' actions, saying all arrests on January 20 were proper. In December, 2017, all the charges against the J20 protesters were dropped. 1

In June 2017, the FBI arrested Reality Winner, an NSA contractor, shortly after The Intercept published an article describing Russian attempts to interfere with the 2016 presidential election, based on classified National Security Agency (NSA) documents leaked to them anonymously. She is currently in jail for "willful retention and transmission of national defense information", and was denied bail. 1

In 2017, Wikileaks published a series of CIA leaks titled Vault 7. The files, dated from 2013–2016, include details on software capabilities of the agency, such as the ability to compromise smart televisions smartphones, including Apple's iPhone and phones running Google's Android operating system, as well as operating systems such as Windows, macOS, and Linux. By adding malware to the Android operating system, the agency can gain access to secure communications made on a device. A program called "Weeping Angel", is claimed to be able to use Samsung smart televisions as covert listening devices, allowing an infected smart television to be used "as a bug, recording conversations in the room and sending them over the internet to a covert C.I.A. server" even if it appears to be off. 1

Despite claims from US political figures that they "support the troops", there is a 100+ year long history of experimentation on US troops —from nuclear tests to psychotropic drugs—as well as knowingly exposing them to deadly poisons, from sarin gas to Agent Orange. Most damning is that the hundreds of thousands of veterans seeking help from the government for the side-effects are always met with lies and denial. 1

In 2013, Edward Snowden, an NSA contractor, leaked secret NSA documents exposing a world-wide network of surveillance lead by the US, in the Global surveillance disclosures. Some NSA programs revealed were PRISM (which collects the e-mail, voice, text and video chats of foreigners and an unknown number of Americans from Microsoft, Google, Facebook, Yahoo, Apple and other tech giants), UPSTREAM, in which the NSA made deals with fiberoptic undersea cable companies to spy on emails, web pages, and phone calls across continents, GENIE, in which smartphone manufacturers of iphone and android bundled spying programs, and XKeyScore, which allowed NSA agents to help build a "fingerprint" of a target by watching their emails, traffic to and from website, and track associations. The Washington Post revealed that the NSA has been tracking the locations of mobile phones from all over the world by tapping into the cables that connect mobile networks globally and that serve U.S. cellphones as well as foreign ones. In the process of doing so, the NSA collects more than five billion records of phone locations on a daily basis. This enables NSA analysts to map cellphone owners' relationships by correlating their patterns of movement over time with thousands or millions of other phoneusers who cross their paths. Australia (ASD), Britain (GCHQ), Canada (CSEC), Denmark (PET), France (DGSE), Germany (BND), Italy (AISE), the Netherlands (AIVD), Norway (NIS), Spain (CNI), Switzerland (NDB), Singapore (SID) as well as Israel (ISNU), were found to be spying on their own citizens, and sharing that data with countries and businesses 1

The 2010 US diplomatic cables leak by Chelsea Manning revealed a pervasive policy of using US ambassadors as spies, supporting dictatorships, spying on the UN, strong-arming for US companies abroad, and disrupting nuclear disarmament talks. The scope of these leaks touches every country the US has a relationship with, and they are better detailed here. 1, 2

In 2010, Chelsea Manning was imprisoned under the espionage act for a series of leaks which embarrassed the US government, including the July 12, 2007 Baghdad airstrike, A